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Pi-hole for Windows, now even easier to set up

Pi-hole for Windows, now even easier to set up
PH4WSL1.cmd (Pi-hole for Windows)
This script performs an automated install of Pi-hole 5 on Windows 10 (version 1809 and newer) / Windows Server 2019 (Standard or Core). No Linux, virtualization, or container expertise required.
If you have an issue installing PH4WSL1.cmd please don't bother the Pi-hole developers. Your best option is to open an issue on the GitHub page.
Copy PH4WSL1.cmd to your computer and "Run as Administrator"
If you don't have Windows up to date, Pi-hole installer will throw an "Unsupported OS" error midway through the installation, see below for required update KB. Uninstall Pi-hole, update your machine and try again
  • Enables WSL1 and downloads Ubuntu 20.04 from Microsoft
  • Installs and Configures distro, downloads and executes Pi-hole installer
  • Creates a /etc/pihole/setupVars.conf file for an automated install
  • Adds exceptions to Windows Firewall for DNS and Pi-hole admin page
  • Includes a Scheduled Task Pi-hole_Task.cmd to allow auto-start at boot, before logon. Edit the task, under General tab check Run whether user is logged on or not and Hidden and (if needed) in the Conditions tab uncheck Start the task only if the computer is on AC power
Requires the recent (August/Sept 2020) WSL update for Windows 10:
  • 1809 - KB4571748
  • 1909 - KB4566116
  • 2004 - KB4571756
Additional Info:
  • DHCP Server is disabled
  • To reset or reconfigure Pi-Hole, run Pi-hole_Reconfigure.cmd in the Pi-hole install folder
  • To uninstall Pi-Hole, run Pi-hole_Uninstall.cmd in the Pi-hole install folder
Below is a console dump and (trimmed) screenshot of the install procedure:
Pi-hole for WSL --------------- Location of 'Pi-hole' folder [Default = C:\Program Files] Response: Pi-hole listener IP and subnet in CIDR format, ie: 192.168.1.99/24 Response: 10.74.0.253/24 Port for Pi-hole. Port 80 is good if you don't have a webserver, or hit enter for default [8880]: Response: 80 Install to: C:\Program Files\Pi-hole Network: 10.74.0.253/24 Port: 80 Fetching LxRunOffline... Installing distro... Configuring distro, this can take a few minutes... Extracting templates from packages: 100% [✓] Root user check .;;,. .ccccc:,. :cccclll:. ..,, :ccccclll. ;ooodc 'ccll:;ll .oooodc .;cll.;;looo:. .. ','. .',,,,,,'. .',,,,,,,,,,. .',,,,,,,,,,,,.... ....''',,,,,,,'....... ......... .... ......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ......... .... ......... ........,,,,,,,'...... ....',,,,,,,,,,,,. .',,,,,,,,,'. .',,,,,,'. ..'''. [✓] Update local cache of available packages [i] Existing PHP installation detected : PHP version 7.4.3 [i] Performing unattended setup, no whiptail dialogs will be displayed [✓] Disk space check [✗] Checking apt-get for upgraded packages Kernel update detected. If the install fails, please reboot and try again [i] Installer Dependency checks... [✓] Checking for dhcpcd5 [✓] Checking for git [✓] Checking for iproute2 [✓] Checking for whiptail [✓] Checking for dnsutils [✓] Supported OS detected [i] SELinux not detected [✗] Check for existing repository in /etc/.pihole [i] Clone https://github.com/pi-hole/pi-hole.git into /etc/.pihole...HEAD is now at 6b536b7 Merge pull request #3564 from pi-hole/release/v5.1.2 [✓] Clone https://github.com/pi-hole/pi-hole.git into /etc/.pihole [✗] Check for existing repository in /vawww/html/admin [i] Clone https://github.com/pi-hole/AdminLTE.git into /vawww/html/admin...HEAD is now at a03d1bd Merge pull request #1498 from pi-hole/release/v5.1.1 [✓] Clone https://github.com/pi-hole/AdminLTE.git into /vawww/html/admin [✓] Enabling lighttpd service to start on reboot... [✓] Creating user 'pihole' [i] FTL Checks... [✓] Detected x86_64 architecture [i] Checking for existing FTL binary... [✓] Downloading and Installing FTL [✓] Installing scripts from /etc/.pihole [i] Installing configs from /etc/.pihole... [✓] No dnsmasq.conf found... restoring default dnsmasq.conf... [✓] Copying 01-pihole.conf to /etc/dnsmasq.d/01-pihole.conf [✓] Preparing new gravity database [i] Target: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/StevenBlack/hosts/mastehosts [✓] Status: Retrieval successful [i] Received 56949 domains [i] Target: https://mirror1.malwaredomains.com/files/justdomains [✓] Status: Retrieval successful [i] Received 26854 domains [✓] DNS service is running [✓] Pi-hole blocking is Enabled [i] Web Interface password: EPDvXZPh [i] This can be changed using 'pihole -a -p' [i] View the web interface at http://pi.hole/admin or http://10.74.0.253/admin [i] You may now configure your devices to use the Pi-hole as their DNS server [i] Pi-hole DNS (IPv4): 10.74.0.253 [i] If you set a new IP address, please restart the server running the Pi-hole [i] The install log is located at: /etc/pihole/install.log Installation Complete! Web Interface Admin Enter New Password (Blank for no password): [✓] Password Removed SUCCESS: The scheduled task "Pi-hole for WSL" has successfully been created. SUCCESS: Attempted to run the scheduled task "Pi-hole for WSL". Wait for Pi-hole launcher window to close and Press any key to continue . . . Pi-hole for WSL Installed to C:\Program Files\Pi-hole 
Expected installer output (truncated screen shot)
Pi-hole-Reconfigure.cmd
Pi-hole running alongside your Windows apps. It can run on a Windows PC with just one CPU core and 1GB RAM.
submitted by desktopecho to pihole [link] [comments]

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

I'm working as an Undergraduate Learning Assistant and wrote this guide to help out students who were in the same boat I was in when I first took my university's intro to computer science course. It provides an overview of how to get started using Linux, guides you through setting up Windows Subsystem for Linux to run smoothly on Windows 10, and provides a very basic introduction to Linux. Students seemed to dig it, so I figured it'd help some people in here as well. I've never posted here before, so apologies if I'm unknowingly violating subreddit rules.

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

GitHub Pages link

Introduction and motivation

tl;dr skip to next section
So you're thinking of installing a Linux distribution, and are unsure where to start. Or you're an unfortunate soul using Windows 10 in CPSC 201. Either way, this guide is for you. In this section I'll give a very basic intro to some of options you've got at your disposal, and explain why I chose Windows Subsystem for Linux among them. All of these have plenty of documentation online so Google if in doubt.

Setting up WSL

So if you've read this far I've convinced you to use WSL. Let's get started with setting it up. The very basics are outlined in Microsoft's guide here, I'll be covering what they talk about and diving into some other stuff.

1. Installing WSL

Press the Windows key (henceforth Winkey) and type in PowerShell. Right-click the icon and select run as administrator. Next, paste in this command:
dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart 
Now you'll want to perform a hard shutdown on your computer. This can become unecessarily complicated because of Window's fast startup feature, but here we go. First try pressing the Winkey, clicking on the power icon, and selecting Shut Down while holding down the shift key. Let go of the shift key and the mouse, and let it shutdown. Great! Now open up Command Prompt and type in
wsl --help 
If you get a large text output, WSL has been successfully enabled on your machine. If nothing happens, your computer failed at performing a hard shutdown, in which case you can try the age-old technique of just holding down your computer's power button until the computer turns itself off. Make sure you don't have any unsaved documents open when you do this.

2. Installing Ubuntu

Great! Now that you've got WSL installed, let's download a Linux distro. Press the Winkey and type in Microsoft Store. Now use the store's search icon and type in Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux distribution, and seems to have the best integration with WSL, so that's what we'll be going for. If you want to be quirky, here are some other options. Once you type in Ubuntu three options should pop up: Ubuntu, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
![Windows Store](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/winstore.png) Installing plain-old "Ubuntu" will mean the app updates whenever a new major Ubuntu distribution is released. The current version (as of 09/02/2020) is Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS. The other two are older distributions of Ubuntu. For most use-cases, i.e. unless you're running some software that will break when upgrading, you'll want to pick the regular Ubuntu option. That's what I did.
Once that's done installing, again hit Winkey and open up Ubuntu. A console window should open up, asking you to wait a minute or two for files to de-compress and be stored on your PC. All future launches should take less than a second. It'll then prompt you to create a username and password. I'd recommend sticking to whatever your Windows username and password is so that you don't have to juggle around two different usepassword combinations, but up to you.
Finally, to upgrade all your packages, type in
sudo apt-get update 
And then
sudo apt-get upgrade 
apt-get is the Ubuntu package manager, this is what you'll be using to install additional programs on WSL.

3. Making things nice and crispy: an introduction to UNIX-based filesystems

tl;dr skip to the next section
The two above steps are technically all you need for running WSL on your system. However, you may notice that whenever you open up the Ubuntu app your current folder seems to be completely random. If you type in pwd (for Print Working Directory, 'directory' is synonymous with 'folder') inside Ubuntu and hit enter, you'll likely get some output akin to /home/. Where is this folder? Is it my home folder? Type in ls (for LiSt) to see what files are in this folder. Probably you won't get any output, because surprise surprise this folder is not your Windows home folder and is in fact empty (okay it's actually not empty, which we'll see in a bit. If you type in ls -a, a for All, you'll see other files but notice they have a period in front of them. This is a convention for specifying files that should be hidden by default, and ls, as well as most other commands, will honor this convention. Anyways).
So where is my Windows home folder? Is WSL completely separate from Windows? Nope! This is Windows Subsystem for Linux after all. Notice how, when you typed pwd earlier, the address you got was /home/. Notice that forward-slash right before home. That forward-slash indicates the root directory (not to be confused with the /root directory), which is the directory at the top of the directory hierarchy and contains all other directories in your system. So if we type ls /, you'll see what are the top-most directories in your system. Okay, great. They have a bunch of seemingly random names. Except, shocker, they aren't random. I've provided a quick run-down in Appendix A.
For now, though, we'll focus on /mnt, which stands for mount. This is where your C drive, which contains all your Windows stuff, is mounted. So if you type ls /mnt/c, you'll begin to notice some familiar folders. Type in ls /mnt/c/Users, and voilà, there's your Windows home folder. Remember this filepath, /mnt/c/Users/. When we open up Ubuntu, we don't want it tossing us in this random /home/ directory, we want our Windows home folder. Let's change that!

4. Changing your default home folder

Type in sudo vim /etc/passwd. You'll likely be prompted for your Ubuntu's password. sudo is a command that gives you root privileges in bash (akin to Windows's right-click then selecting 'Run as administrator'). vim is a command-line text-editing tool, which out-of-the-box functions kind of like a crummy Notepad (you can customize it infinitely though, and some people have insane vim setups. Appendix B has more info). /etc/passwd is a plaintext file that historically was used to store passwords back when encryption wasn't a big deal, but now instead stores essential user info used every time you open up WSL.
Anyway, once you've typed that in, your shell should look something like this: ![vim /etc/passwd](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/vim-etc-passwd.png)
Using arrow-keys, find the entry that begins with your Ubuntu username. It should be towards the bottom of the file. In my case, the line looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/pizzatron3000:/bin/bash 
See that cringy, crummy /home/pizzatron3000? Not only do I regret that username to this day, it's also not where we want our home directory. Let's change that! Press i to initiate vim's -- INSERT -- mode. Use arrow-keys to navigate to that section, and delete /home/ by holding down backspace. Remember that filepath I asked you to remember? /mnt/c/Users/. Type that in. For me, the line now looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/mnt/c/Users/lucas:/bin/bash 
Next, press esc to exit insert mode, then type in the following:
:wq 
The : tells vim you're inputting a command, w means write, and q means quit. If you've screwed up any of the above sections, you can also type in :q! to exit vim without saving the file. Just remember to exit insert mode by pressing esc before inputting commands, else you'll instead be writing to the file.
Great! If you now open up a new terminal and type in pwd, you should be in your Window's home folder! However, things seem to be lacking their usual color...

5. Importing your configuration files into the new home directory

Your home folder contains all your Ubuntu and bash configuration files. However, since we just changed the home folder to your Window's home folder, we've lost these configuration files. Let's bring them back! These configuration files are hidden inside /home/, and they all start with a . in front of the filename. So let's copy them over into your new home directory! Type in the following:
cp -r /home//. ~ 
cp stands for CoPy, -r stands for recursive (i.e. descend into directories), the . at the end is cp-specific syntax that lets it copy anything, including hidden files, and the ~ is a quick way of writing your home directory's filepath (which would be /mnt/c/Users/) without having to type all that in again. Once you've run this, all your configuration files should now be present in your new home directory. Configuration files like .bashrc, .profile, and .bash_profile essentially provide commands that are run whenever you open a new shell. So now, if you open a new shell, everything should be working normally. Amazing. We're done!

6. Tips & tricks

Here are two handy commands you can add to your .profile file. Run vim ~/.profile, then, type these in at the top of the .profile file, one per line, using the commands we discussed previously (i to enter insert mode, esc to exit insert mode, :wq to save and quit).
alias rm='rm -i' makes it so that the rm command will always ask for confirmation when you're deleting a file. rm, for ReMove, is like a Windows delete except literally permanent and you will lose that data for good, so it's nice to have this extra safeguard. You can type rm -f to bypass. Linux can be super powerful, but with great power comes great responsibility. NEVER NEVER NEVER type in rm -rf /, this is saying 'delete literally everything and don't ask for confirmation', your computer will die. Newer versions of rm fail when you type this in, but don't push your luck. You've been warned. Be careful.
export DISPLAY=:0 if you install XLaunch VcXsrv, this line allows you to open graphical interfaces through Ubuntu. The export sets the environment variable DISPLAY, and the :0 tells Ubuntu that it should use the localhost display.

Appendix A: brief intro to top-level UNIX directories

tl;dr only mess with /mnt, /home, and maybe maybe /usr. Don't touch anything else.
  • bin: binaries, contains Ubuntu binary (aka executable) files that are used in bash. Here you'll find the binaries that execute commands like ls and pwd. Similar to /usbin, but bin gets loaded earlier in the booting process so it contains the most important commands.
  • boot: contains information for operating system booting. Empty in WSL, because WSL isn't an operating system.
  • dev: devices, provides files that allow Ubuntu to communicate with I/O devices. One useful file here is /dev/null, which is basically an information black hole that automatically deletes any data you pass it.
  • etc: no idea why it's called etc, but it contains system-wide configuration files
  • home: equivalent to Window's C:/Users folder, contains home folders for the different users. In an Ubuntu system, under /home/ you'd find the Documents folder, Downloads folder, etc.
  • lib: libraries used by the system
  • lib64 64-bit libraries used by the system
  • mnt: mount, where your drives are located
  • opt: third-party applications that (usually) don't have any dependencies outside the scope of their own package
  • proc: process information, contains runtime information about your system (e.g. memory, mounted devices, hardware configurations, etc)
  • run: directory for programs to store runtime information.
  • srv: server folder, holds data to be served in protocols like ftp, www, cvs, and others
  • sys: system, provides information about different I/O devices to the Linux Kernel. If dev files allows you to access I/O devices, sys files tells you information about these devices.
  • tmp: temporary, these are system runtime files that are (in most Linux distros) cleared out after every reboot. It's also sort of deprecated for security reasons, and programs will generally prefer to use run.
  • usr: contains additional UNIX commands, header files for compiling C programs, among other things. Kind of like bin but for less important programs. Most of everything you install using apt-get ends up here.
  • var: variable, contains variable data such as logs, databases, e-mail etc, but that persist across different boots.
Also keep in mind that all of this is just convention. No Linux distribution needs to follow this file structure, and in fact almost all will deviate from what I just described. Hell, you could make your own Linux fork where /mnt/c information is stored in tmp.

Appendix B: random resources

EDIT: implemented various changes suggested in the comments. Thanks all!
submitted by HeavenBuilder to linux4noobs [link] [comments]

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

I'm working as an Undergraduate Learning Assistant and wrote this guide to help out students who were in the same boat I was in when I first took my university's intro to computer science course. It provides an overview of how to get started using Linux, guides you through setting up Windows Subsystem for Linux to run smoothly on Windows 10, and provides a very basic introduction to Linux. Students seemed to dig it, so I figured it'd help some people in here as well. I've never posted here before, so apologies if I'm unknowingly violating subreddit rules.

Getting Windows Subsystem for Linux running smoothly on Windows 10

GitHub Pages link

Introduction and motivation

tl;dr skip to next section
So you're thinking of installing a Linux distribution, and are unsure where to start. Or you're an unfortunate soul using Windows 10 in CPSC 201. Either way, this guide is for you. In this section I'll give a very basic intro to some of options you've got at your disposal, and explain why I chose Windows Subsystem for Linux among them. All of these have plenty of documentation online so Google if in doubt.

Setting up WSL

So if you've read this far I've convinced you to use WSL. Let's get started with setting it up. The very basics are outlined in Microsoft's guide here, I'll be covering what they talk about and diving into some other stuff.

1. Installing WSL

Press the Windows key (henceforth Winkey) and type in PowerShell. Right-click the icon and select run as administrator. Next, paste in this command:
dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart 
Now you'll want to perform a hard shutdown on your computer. This can become unecessarily complicated because of Window's fast startup feature, but here we go. First try pressing the Winkey, clicking on the power icon, and selecting Shut Down while holding down the shift key. Let go of the shift key and the mouse, and let it shutdown. Great! Now open up Command Prompt and type in
wsl --help 
If you get a large text output, WSL has been successfully enabled on your machine. If nothing happens, your computer failed at performing a hard shutdown, in which case you can try the age-old technique of just holding down your computer's power button until the computer turns itself off. Make sure you don't have any unsaved documents open when you do this.

2. Installing Ubuntu

Great! Now that you've got WSL installed, let's download a Linux distro. Press the Winkey and type in Microsoft Store. Now use the store's search icon and type in Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux distribution, and seems to have the best integration with WSL, so that's what we'll be going for. If you want to be quirky, here are some other options. Once you type in Ubuntu three options should pop up: Ubuntu, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
![Windows Store](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/winstore.png) Installing plain-old "Ubuntu" will mean the app updates whenever a new major Ubuntu distribution is released. The current version (as of 09/02/2020) is Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS. The other two are older distributions of Ubuntu. For most use-cases, i.e. unless you're running some software that will break when upgrading, you'll want to pick the regular Ubuntu option. That's what I did.
Once that's done installing, again hit Winkey and open up Ubuntu. A console window should open up, asking you to wait a minute or two for files to de-compress and be stored on your PC. All future launches should take less than a second. It'll then prompt you to create a username and password. I'd recommend sticking to whatever your Windows username and password is so that you don't have to juggle around two different usepassword combinations, but up to you.
Finally, to upgrade all your packages, type in
sudo apt-get update 
And then
sudo apt-get upgrade 
apt-get is the Ubuntu package manager, this is what you'll be using to install additional programs on WSL.

3. Making things nice and crispy: an introduction to UNIX-based filesystems

tl;dr skip to the next section
The two above steps are technically all you need for running WSL on your system. However, you may notice that whenever you open up the Ubuntu app your current folder seems to be completely random. If you type in pwd (for Present Working Directory, 'directory' is synonymous with 'folder') inside Ubuntu and hit enter, you'll likely get some output akin to /home/. Where is this folder? Is it my home folder? Type in ls (for LiSt) to see what files are in this folder. Probably you won't get any output, because surprise surprise this folder is not your Windows home folder and is in fact empty (okay it's actually not empty, which we'll see in a bit. If you type in ls -a, a for All, you'll see other files but notice they have a period in front of them, which tells bash that they should be hidden by default. Anyways).
So where is my Windows home folder? Is WSL completely separate from Windows? Nope! This is Windows Subsystem for Linux after all. Notice how, when you typed pwd earlier, the address you got was /home/. Notice that forward-slash right before home. That forward-slash indicates the root directory (not to be confused with the /root directory), which is the directory at the top of the directory hierarchy and contains all other directories in your system. So if we type ls /, you'll see what are the top-most directories in your system. Okay, great. They have a bunch of seemingly random names. Except, shocker, they aren't random. I've provided a quick run-down in Appendix A.
For now, though, we'll focus on /mnt, which stands for mount. This is where your C drive, which contains all your Windows stuff, is mounted. So if you type ls /mnt/c, you'll begin to notice some familiar folders. Type in ls /mnt/c/Users, and voilà, there's your Windows home folder. Remember this filepath, /mnt/c/Users/. When we open up Ubuntu, we don't want it tossing us in this random /home/ directory, we want our Windows home folder. Let's change that!

4. Changing your default home folder

Type in sudo vim /etc/passwd. You'll likely be prompted for your Ubuntu's password. sudo is a command that gives you root privileges in bash (akin to Windows's right-click then selecting 'Run as administrator'). vim is a command-line text-editing tool, kinda like an even crummier Notepad, which is a pain to use at first but bear with me and we can pull through. /etc/passwd is a plaintext file that does not store passwords, as the name would suggest, but rather stores essential user info used every time you open up WSL.
Anyway, once you've typed that in, your shell should look something like this: ![vim /etc/passwd](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/vim-etc-passwd.png)
Using arrow-keys, find the entry that begins with your Ubuntu username. It should be towards the bottom of the file. In my case, the line looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/pizzatron3000:/bin/bash 
See that cringy, crummy /home/pizzatron3000? Not only do I regret that username to this day, it's also not where we want our home directory. Let's change that! Press i to initiate vim's -- INSERT -- mode. Use arrow-keys to navigate to that section, and delete /home/ by holding down backspace. Remember that filepath I asked you to remember? /mnt/c/Users/. Type that in. For me, the line now looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/mnt/c/Users/lucas:/bin/bash 
Next, press esc to exit insert mode, then type in the following:
:wq 
The : tells vim you're inputting a command, w means write, and q means quit. If you've screwed up any of the above sections, you can also type in :q! to exit vim without saving the file. Just remember to exit insert mode by pressing esc before inputting commands, else you'll instead be writing to the file.
Great! If you now open up a new terminal and type in pwd, you should be in your Window's home folder! However, things seem to be lacking their usual color...

5. Importing your configuration files into the new home directory

Your home folder contains all your Ubuntu and bash configuration files. However, since we just changed the home folder to your Window's home folder, we've lost these configuration files. Let's bring them back! These configuration files are hidden inside /home/, and they all start with a . in front of the filename. So let's copy them over into your new home directory! Type in the following:
cp -r /home//* ~ 
cp stands for CoPy, -r stands for recursive (i.e. descend into directories), the * is a Kleene Star and means "grab everything that's here", and the ~ is a quick way of writing your home directory's filepath (which would be /mnt/c/Users/) without having to type all that in again. Once you've run this, all your configuration files should now be present in your new home directory. Configuration files like .bashrc, .profile, and .bash_profile essentially provides commands that are run whenever you open a new shell. So now, if you open a new shell, everything should be working normally. Amazing. We're done!

6. Tips & tricks

Here are two handy commands you can add to your .profile file. Run vim ~/.profile, then, type these in at the top of the .profile file, one per line, using the commands we discussed previously (i to enter insert mode, esc to exit insert mode, :wq to save and quit).
alias rm='rm -i' makes it so that the rm command will always ask for confirmation when you're deleting a file. rm, for ReMove, is like a Windows delete except literally permanent and you will lose that data for good, so it's nice to have this extra safeguard. You can type rm -f to bypass. Linux can be super powerful, but with great power comes great responsibility. NEVER NEVER NEVER type in rm -rf /, this is saying 'delete literally everything and don't ask for confirmation', your computer will die. You've been warned. Be careful.
export DISPLAY=:0 if you install XLaunch VcXsrv, this line allows you to open graphical interfaces through Ubuntu. The export sets the environment variable DISPLAY, and the :0 tells Ubuntu that it should use the localhost display.

Appendix A: overview of top-level UNIX directories

tl;dr only mess with /mnt, /home, and maybe maybe /usr. Don't touch anything else.
  • bin: binaries, contains Ubuntu binary (aka executable) files that are used in bash. Here you'll find the binaries that execute commands like ls and pwd. Similar to /usbin, but bin gets loaded earlier in the booting process so it contains the most important commands.
  • boot: contains information for operating system booting. Empty in WSL, because WSL isn't an operating system.
  • dev: devices, contains information for Ubuntu to communicate with I/O devices. One useful file here is /dev/null, which is basically an information black hole that automatically deletes any data you pass it.
  • etc: no idea why it's called etc, but it contains system-wide configuration files
  • home: equivalent to Window's C:/Users folder, contains home folders for the different users. In an Ubuntu system, under /home/ you'd find the Documents folder, Downloads folder, etc.
  • lib: libraries used by the system
  • lib64 64-bit libraries used by the system
  • mnt: mount, where your drives are located
  • opt: third-party applications that don't have any dependencies outside the scope of their own package
  • proc: process information, contains details about your Linux system, kind of like Windows's C:/Windows folder
  • run: directory for programs to store runtime information. Similarly to /bin vs /usbin, run has the same function as /varun, but gets loaded sooner in the boot process.
  • srv: server folder, holds data to be served in protocols like ftp, www, cvs, and others
  • sys: system, used by the Linux kernel to set or obtain information about the host system
  • tmp: temporary, runtime files that are cleared out after every reboot. Kinda like RAM in that way.
  • usr: contains additional UNIX commands, header files for compiling C programs, among other things. Most of everything you install using apt-get ends up here.
  • var: variable, contains variable data such as logs, databases, e-mail etc, but that persist across different boots.

Appendix B: random resources

submitted by HeavenBuilder to learnprogramming [link] [comments]

Working OpenCore Hackintosh AMD Ryzen 2600, GigBy B450m, 16 (2*8gb), RX 590 on macOS 10.15.4 Catalina! Dual Boot with Windows 10

Working OpenCore Hackintosh AMD Ryzen 2600, GigBy B450m, 16 (2*8gb), RX 590 on macOS 10.15.4 Catalina! Dual Boot with Windows 10

Working system on macOS 10.15.4
rEFInd bootloader.
Working iServices. Logged in into iCloud and things like iMessage and FaceTime work!

I used the AMD Vanilla guide with OpenCore, looking to https://khronokernel-2.gitbook.io/opencore-vanilla-desktop-guide/ and created a bootable USB and configure the config.plist for the EFI
Hardware and What's Working:
  • AMD Ryzen 5 2600, Gigabyte B450m, Corsair 16 gigs ram, Gigabyte RX 590
  • OpenCore, Dual boot with Windows 10 and macOS Catalina (10.15.4)
  • Realtek ethernet
  • USB ports mapped
  • Graphics via WhateverGreen
  • Realtek onboard headphones and lineout with AppleALC.
  • iMessage, iCloud, FaceTime, AppStore etc..
  • Bluetooth
  • Temperatures for my CPU and GPU etc and fan speeds.
What's not working:
To be honest, everything works like it should be. I did not experience weird bugs or glitches.
  • About my mac page says Intel i5 instead of my AMD CPU
  • Zooming in Adobe XD has lagg
  • RAM speeds are not the same as what is showing up in about my mac.

Issues I had:
My EFI partition was glitching, I don't know exactly how. But a long time ago I replaced my old SSD for Windows with an m.2 SSD. With a tool I copied the whole Windows OS from my SSD to the m.2 SSD. I guess my EFI partition was glichting due this, but I never felt any issues with it on Windows itself.
When I tried to install rEFInd, command prompt in Windows (for manual installation) was a pain, it gave errors, blah blah blah. After 4 days I deleted my whole EFI partition and created a new one with a bootable USB Windows installer. In the Windows Setup I pressed SHIFT+10 for the command prompt and made a new EFI partition. When that was fixed I could install rEFInd, it finally did show up in my BIOS! (If you need help with this please PM me on here or discord: 𝗠𝗶𝘁𝗰𝗵𝗲𝗹#7899*)*

Note: For editing the EFI partition on Windows you need to mount your EFI partition in CMD with admin rights. "mountvol S: /s" - Then I could access the volume with Explorer++ (also runned as admin)

  • iServices did not work, including iMessage and FaceTime
I had a problem in the beginning where it would hang on the 2FA verification for my Apple ID

Can't login into iCloud, hangs at 2FA
So I tried fixing my En0 with this guide: https://khronokernel-2.gitbook.io/opencore-vanilla-desktop-guide/post-install/post-install/iservices
When that was done it was still hanging. But iMessage and FaceTime worked after that. When I tried logging in via the AppStore it worked. So then I was logged in into the whole system.

Note: I did not tell all my problems here because it can be different on some other hackintosh pc's, like I needed to generate a custom serial code for my system with GenSMBIOS and configure it with ProperTree in my config.plist which was in my EFI partition for booting up my system.

  • "The disk you inserted was not readable by this computer."
It was not a glitch or anything but because I have a dual boot system it gave me constantly this error when booting into macOS

https://preview.redd.it/5fdvclbtz6q41.png?width=552&format=png&auto=webp&s=925b45445b14566cb9210ea0515507dc3cbba3ec
This is my Windows SSD which was mounting constantly on booting macOS, so I tried to disable mounting that disk on booting, which did not work for me. So I installed the kext DiskArbitrationFixup to disable this warning. But I am just ignoring the disk in my Finder and I can't delete files on it from macOS which is really good.

After all I was happy for me as a 17 years old (not native English speaker from The Netherlands) that my system worked perfectly (for how I liked it). It took me full one week time for this, but I guess my system it worth it :)

PS: That background, I made it myself a while ago as a redesign for Starbucks lol :)


Edit 1: My custom rEFInd GUI icons for Windows 10 and Shutdown (they were not updated for more than 4 years)
For those who wants my custom Windows 10 (and the maybe ugly shutdown icon for the rEFInd bootloader) here's the download link: https://mega.nz/#!bSBQjKZA!NpO_9CefMsiMRcClAix4D11sEPtRaK8mnJ7-Fic6aE4

My Cutom Windows 10 icon (and shutdown)

Edit 2: How to install rEFInd and apply a theme
I did not get rEFInd install via macOS.. I tried it serval times but it did not show up at all in my BIOS. I guess it was just a stupid thing in my Windows partition because I had issues with my EFI partition like I said earlier. So this tutorial is for dual boot users (with Windows). I will try to explain how you can also do this on macOS, I guess that will also work but it did not for me due the partition.

  1. So when you're in Windows, google for rEFInd download, and download it from the SourceForge website.
  2. Locate Command Prompt in the Start menu, right-click it, and select Run as Administrator. This action opens a Command Prompt window with administrative privileges.
  3. Type mountvol S: /S in the Administrator Command Prompt window. This makes the ESP/EFI accessible as drive S: from that window. (You can use a drive identifier other than S: if you like.)
  4. Change into the main rEFInd package directory (you do this with in command promt with "CD " <(without the ""), so that the refind subdirectory is visible when you type dir.
  5. Type xcopy /E refind S:\EFI\refind\ to copy the refind directory tree to the ESP's EFI directory. If you omit the trailing backslash from this command, xcopy will ask if you want to create the refind directory. Tell it to do so.
  6. Type S: to change to the ESP.
  7. Type cd EFI\refind to change into the refind subdirectory
  8. You may want to selectively delete some of the drivers in the drivers_x64, drivers_ia32, or drivers_aa64 directory, depending on your architecture and needs. Unnecessary drivers will slow the rEFInd start process, and can even cause the drivers you need to not work or cause a system crash.
  9. Type rename refind.conf-sample refind.conf to rename rEFInd's configuration file.
  10. Type bcdedit /set "{bootmgr}" path \EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi to set rEFInd as the default EFI boot program. Note that "{bootmgr}" is entered as such, including both the quotes and braces ({}). Also, change refind_x64.efi to refind_ia32.efi on systems with 32-bit EFIs. Such computers are rare, and most of them are tablets. Check your Windows bit depth to determine which binary you should use.
  11. If you like, type bcdedit /set "{bootmgr}" description "rEFInd description" to set a description (change rEFInd description as you see fit).
At this point, when you reboot, rEFInd should appear as your new default boot program. Or check your BIOS if it is there in your boot options. If it doesn't work for you, please go and search on the internet further because on the is so much more information on the official rEFInd site.

So if it works, you will see a ugly grey theme with the boot options.
I am using this theme: https://github.com/andersfischernielsen/rEFInd-minimal-black
  1. Locate your refind EFI directory. This is commonly /boot/EFI/refind though it will depend on where you mount your ESP and where rEFInd is installed.
  2. Create a folder called themes inside it, if it doesn't already exist
  3. Clone the theme into the themes folder you just created
  4. To enable the theme add include themes/rEFInd-minimal-black/theme.conf at the end of refind.conf.
You can edit the .conf files with Notepad++ on Windows and TextEdit on macOS
If you want to use my icons for a better Windows icon (and shutdown icon) replace my icons with the icons in /boot/EFI/refind/themes/rEFInd-minimal-black/icons folder.

!! TO MOUNT YOUR EFI PARTITION USE EXPLORER++ ON WINDOWS AND CLOVER ON YOUR HACKINTOSH !!

For those who want to do this on macOS, I'll copy the original instructions so it is clearer for you than for myself. But it's about the same with installing the theme. The only thing you need to do is mounting your EFI with clover. The tutorial:
  1. Open a Terminal window in which you'll type the following commands.
  2. If you want to install rEFInd on your ESP, you must first mount it. The easy way to do this is to use the mountesp script that comes with rEFInd. When you run it, the script should tell you where the ESP was mounted. You can do the job manually by typing mkdir /Volumes/ESP followed by sudo mount -t msdos /dev/disk0s1 /Volumes/ESP. Note that you may need to change /dev/disk0s1 to something else if your ESP is at an unusual location. Type diskutil list or use a tool such as my GPT fdisk (gdisk) to examine your partition table to find your ESP if necessary.
  3. Type sudo mkdir -p /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind to create a suitable directory for rEFInd. If you want to place rEFInd on the macOS root partition, you should adjust the pathname appropriately, as in /efi/refind. Alternatively, you can use the Finder to create the directory.
  4. Copy the files in the refind subdirectory of the rEFInd binary package to the like-named directory you've just created. You can do this in the Finder or by typing sudo cp -r refind/* /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/ in your Terminal window after changing into the rEFInd package's main directory.
  5. Remove the files for the versions of rEFInd you're not using, as in sudo rm Volumes/esp/efi/refind/refind_ia32.efi Volumes/esp/efi/refind/refind_aa64.efi on a Mac with a 64-bit EFI or sudo rm /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/refind_x64.efi Volumes/esp/efi/refind/refind_aa64.efi on a Mac with a 32-bit EFI.
  6. Optionally, remove the drivers directories for the architectures you're not using—/Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/drivers_ia32 or /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/drivers_x64, as appropriate. (No Mac uses an ARM CPU, so you'd also remove /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/drivers_aa64.
  7. I strongly recommend that you remove some or all of the drivers for the architecture you are using; if you don't need them, they'll slow down the start process and can even hang rEFInd if a driver is buggy and it encounters a damaged filesystem. See the page on drivers for more on this topic. Note that Apple's firmware includes its own HFS+ driver, so the HFS+ driver provided with rEFInd is useless on Macs. Normally, you only need a filesystem driver if you're dual-booting with Linux, and in that case you need only the driver for the filesystem that holds the Linux kernel.
  8. If this is your first installation, type sudo mv /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/refind.conf-sample /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/refind.conf (adjusting the path as necessary) to rename the sample configuration file so that it will serve as a real configuration file. (Again, you can do this with the Finder, if you prefer.)
  9. "Bless" rEFInd by typing one of the following two commands:
  • If you're installing rEFInd on the ESP, type sudo bless --mount /Volumes/ESP --setBoot --file /Volumes/ESP/efi/refind/refind_x64.efi --shortform, adjusting the mount point and exact path to the file as appropriate for your installation.
  • If you're installing rEFInd to an ordinary HFS+ volume, type sudo bless --setBoot --folder /efi/refind --file /efi/refind/refind_x64.efi. (Adjust the path and filename as necessary if you're placing rEFInd somewhere else or using the 32-bit version.)
  • This is the step that's likely to fail if your system is booted with SIP active.
  1. If you don't want to reboot immediately after installing rEFInd, you may optionally unmount the ESP by typing sudo umount /dev/disk0s1 or sudo umount /Volumes/ESP. This step isn't strictly required, but if you want to keep the ESP out of your directory tree, it can be useful.
When you reboot, your Mac should bring up the rEFInd menu, and should continue to do so thereafter. If you make changes that break this association, you can re-run the bless command (if necessary, restoring the rEFInd files first). This might be necessary after installing system updates from Apple or if you upgrade rEFInd to a newer version.
If you're replacing rEFIt, you may discover that rEFInd works on the first boot, but the system reverts back to rEFIt or a direct boot to macOS on the second boot. To fix this problem, you can remove the rEFItBlesser program, which is located at /Library/StartupItems/rEFItBlesser. This program attempts to keep rEFIt set as the default boot loader, but it also has the purpose of protecting the computer from launching the wrong OS after waking from sleep. If you want that protection, my suggestion is to install rEFIt and rEFItBlesser and then replace the refit.efi file with refind_x64.efi or refind_ia32.efi (renaming it to refit.efi). Used in this way, rEFInd will still look for its own configuration file, refind.conf, so you'll need to move it but not rename it. If you don't move the icons from the rEFInd package, your icons will continue to look like rEFIt icons, and you'll be missing the new icons for specific Linux distributions that rEFInd provides. One final caveat: It's conceivable that rEFItBlesser is what's causing filesystem corruption for some users, so if you've been having this problem with rEFIt, it might be worth disabling this program and not using it with rEFInd.

I dont know why but I made a quick TikTok haha

https://reddit.com/link/fsy48b/video/gpm5han3a9q41/player


submitted by Mitchhhel to hackintosh [link] [comments]

Which could have best lifespan?

Hello all,
Long read, but I sincerely appreciate the help and concerns of others. My apologies if this is improper format, but my questions and concerns don't really fit within that frame of organization. If this is improper of me, please delete I suppose, and I'll go somewhere else to find any info. Otherwise, thank you for continuing on.
I'm mostly set in what I'm looking for, but I'd like some more critical, objective reassurance of which would be the best option to invest in pertaining to the lifespan of the product vs costs. Primarily, I'm simply looking for a desktop alternative, but with a bit of utility AND fashion thrown in, but that's beside the point. My primary purpose of either is the need to be able to continue working when I'm away from my desktop, considering I'm unable to stay in a computer chair for extended times due to health reasons.
I'm between the Razer Blade 15 Advanced, and Surface Pro 7 i7 1tb.

Please, hear me out:
I've considered the 2080 super maxQ in the Razer laptop as a hefty piece of future-proof equipment for my game dev/gaming needs. I have an aorus 2080 OC in my desktop, so I understand it's horsepower and potential to help me with 3/2D work and rendering. I've always been a fan of Razer products and services (service, not back-end software..) and I've boiled it down to considering the Blade 15 Advance as an option: 10th gen i7, high end GPU, 16gb ram, 1tb storage with options for further upgrades; slim design, sturdy and rugged build, exceptional audio and overall poweportability. The Goldilocks effect. Perfect.
My other option I was looking at was the Surface Pro 7 i7 1tb. Similar setup, similar portability, but it sacrifices GPU power for artistic portability: 4096 pressure sensitivity levels, full windows 10 home suite in a tablet size, comparative base-line storage (to the Razer laptop) with room to expand via microSD, full HD touch-screen/draw interface on-par with the Wacom Intuos line. It's also quite the perfect fit, especially since it would be useful to be able to sketch and create storyboard mock-ups or concept art; et al if I can't be at my desktop.
I've done as much research I can do, but the one thing I have no bearing on is which option would be the "better" solution regarding longevity of the device itself?
My summation: the Razer would run far hotter, therefor imposing much more stress on the mechanical components, due to it's ability to game (and why wouldn't I? It's a gaming laptop), but it lacks a drawing mechanism, so it'd be mostly just rendering/emails/writing/typical workloads regarding any work, and gaming from time to time. On the other hand, the Surface lacks any true gaming capabilities; at least, capabilities that would push the hardware so hard that it'd heat up to certain extremes, which means it would never really get hot enough to be concerned for the longevity of the device, at least not comparatively to a gaming laptop. The Surface would be confined to being strictly a drawing tablet/typical workload device.
Based on either input regarding heat and it's affects on the longevity of the device, and all inherent costs in question (including accessories; cases, screen protectors, warranties etc), which would be the better purchase if I wanted to buy something I care to maintain, use, and enjoy for as long as possible?
Consider this: I'm not locked into the Razer platform. The pre-builds Razer offers simply provide the general foundation of tools and functions I could use, and need. I wouldn't mind searching for a laptop with the same exact specs as the Razer, if it means 1) it would have better airflow, therefore less heat mitigation needed, ergo longer life-span; and 2) a lower cost.
I know this isn't a straightforward, binary yes/no question, but if anyone else has any other research or information to provide, I would be very appreciative. I have the funds, now, and am looking to buy asap, but I'm also very very careful in what I invest in. I'm very OCD, highly protective, and careful with my products, no matter the price range. I simply would like to obtain some sort of peace of mind, is all.
All things considered, I am NOT looking for opinions of the product's origins. Tips, clues, or insight as to any sort of pitfalls with either device would be exceptional, though. Overall, I'm not looking to hear why "M$ = bad" or "razer is trash" - I'm talking hardware and its objective, inherent qualities as to which would be the superior, longest lasting, most frugal purchase.
Thank you ahead, I appreciate those who took the time to read all of this.
submitted by the_gaming_bur to SuggestALaptop [link] [comments]

A Complete Penetration Testing & Hacking Tools List for Hackers & Security Professionals

A Complete Penetration Testing & Hacking Tools List for Hackers & Security Professionals

https://i.redd.it/7hvs58an33e41.gif
Penetration testing & Hacking Tools are more often used by security industries to test the vulnerabilities in network and applications. Here you can find the Comprehensive Penetration testing & Hacking Tools list that covers Performing Penetration testing Operation in all the Environment. Penetration testing and ethical hacking tools are a very essential part of every organization to test the vulnerabilities and patch the vulnerable system.
Also, Read What is Penetration Testing? How to do Penetration Testing?
Penetration Testing & Hacking Tools ListOnline Resources – Hacking ToolsPenetration Testing Resources
Exploit Development
OSINT Resources
Social Engineering Resources
Lock Picking Resources
Operating Systems
Hacking ToolsPenetration Testing Distributions
  • Kali – GNU/Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing Hacking Tools
  • ArchStrike – Arch GNU/Linux repository for security professionals and enthusiasts.
  • BlackArch – Arch GNU/Linux-based distribution with best Hacking Tools for penetration testers and security researchers.
  • Network Security Toolkit (NST) – Fedora-based bootable live operating system designed to provide easy access to best-of-breed open source network security applications.
  • Pentoo – Security-focused live CD based on Gentoo.
  • BackBox – Ubuntu-based distribution for penetration tests and security assessments.
  • Parrot – Distribution similar to Kali, with multiple architectures with 100 of Hacking Tools.
  • Buscador – GNU/Linux virtual machine that is pre-configured for online investigators.
  • Fedora Security Lab – provides a safe test environment to work on security auditing, forensics, system rescue, and teaching security testing methodologies.
  • The Pentesters Framework – Distro organized around the Penetration Testing Execution Standard (PTES), providing a curated collection of utilities that eliminates often unused toolchains.
  • AttifyOS – GNU/Linux distribution focused on tools useful during the Internet of Things (IoT) security assessments.
Docker for Penetration Testing
Multi-paradigm Frameworks
  • Metasploit – post-exploitation Hacking Tools for offensive security teams to help verify vulnerabilities and manage security assessments.
  • Armitage – Java-based GUI front-end for the Metasploit Framework.
  • Faraday – Multiuser integrated pentesting environment for red teams performing cooperative penetration tests, security audits, and risk assessments.
  • ExploitPack – Graphical tool for automating penetration tests that ships with many pre-packaged exploits.
  • Pupy – Cross-platform (Windows, Linux, macOS, Android) remote administration and post-exploitation tool,
Vulnerability Scanners
  • Nexpose – Commercial vulnerability and risk management assessment engine that integrates with Metasploit, sold by Rapid7.
  • Nessus – Commercial vulnerability management, configuration, and compliance assessment platform, sold by Tenable.
  • OpenVAS – Free software implementation of the popular Nessus vulnerability assessment system.
  • Vuls – Agentless vulnerability scanner for GNU/Linux and FreeBSD, written in Go.
Static Analyzers
  • Brakeman – Static analysis security vulnerability scanner for Ruby on Rails applications.
  • cppcheck – Extensible C/C++ static analyzer focused on finding bugs.
  • FindBugs – Free software static analyzer to look for bugs in Java code.
  • sobelow – Security-focused static analysis for the Phoenix Framework.
  • bandit – Security oriented static analyzer for Python code.
Web Scanners
  • Nikto – Noisy but fast black box web server and web application vulnerability scanner.
  • Arachni – Scriptable framework for evaluating the security of web applications.
  • w3af – Hacking Tools for Web application attack and audit framework.
  • Wapiti – Black box web application vulnerability scanner with built-in fuzzer.
  • SecApps – In-browser web application security testing suite.
  • WebReaver – Commercial, graphical web application vulnerability scanner designed for macOS.
  • WPScan – Hacking Tools of the Black box WordPress vulnerability scanner.
  • cms-explorer – Reveal the specific modules, plugins, components and themes that various websites powered by content management systems are running.
  • joomscan – one of the best Hacking Tools for Joomla vulnerability scanner.
  • ACSTIS – Automated client-side template injection (sandbox escape/bypass) detection for AngularJS.
Network Tools
  • zmap – Open source network scanner that enables researchers to easily perform Internet-wide network studies.
  • nmap – Free security scanner for network exploration & security audits.
  • pig – one of the Hacking Tools forGNU/Linux packet crafting.
  • scanless – Utility for using websites to perform port scans on your behalf so as not to reveal your own IP.
  • tcpdump/libpcap – Common packet analyzer that runs under the command line.
  • Wireshark – Widely-used graphical, cross-platform network protocol analyzer.
  • Network-Tools.com – Website offering an interface to numerous basic network utilities like ping, traceroute, whois, and more.
  • netsniff-ng – Swiss army knife for network sniffing.
  • Intercepter-NG – Multifunctional network toolkit.
  • SPARTA – Graphical interface offering scriptable, configurable access to existing network infrastructure scanning and enumeration tools.
  • dnschef – Highly configurable DNS proxy for pentesters.
  • DNSDumpster – one of the Hacking Tools for Online DNS recon and search service.
  • CloudFail – Unmask server IP addresses hidden behind Cloudflare by searching old database records and detecting misconfigured DNS.
  • dnsenum – Perl script that enumerates DNS information from a domain, attempts zone transfers, performs a brute force dictionary style attack and then performs reverse look-ups on the results.
  • dnsmap – One of the Hacking Tools for Passive DNS network mapper.
  • dnsrecon – One of the Hacking Tools for DNS enumeration script.
  • dnstracer – Determines where a given DNS server gets its information from, and follows the chain of DNS servers.
  • passivedns-client – Library and query tool for querying several passive DNS providers.
  • passivedns – Network sniffer that logs all DNS server replies for use in a passive DNS setup.
  • Mass Scan – best Hacking Tools for TCP port scanner, spews SYN packets asynchronously, scanning the entire Internet in under 5 minutes.
  • Zarp – Network attack tool centered around the exploitation of local networks.
  • mitmproxy – Interactive TLS-capable intercepting HTTP proxy for penetration testers and software developers.
  • Morpheus – Automated ettercap TCP/IP Hacking Tools .
  • mallory – HTTP/HTTPS proxy over SSH.
  • SSH MITM – Intercept SSH connections with a proxy; all plaintext passwords and sessions are logged to disk.
  • Netzob – Reverse engineering, traffic generation and fuzzing of communication protocols.
  • DET – Proof of concept to perform data exfiltration using either single or multiple channel(s) at the same time.
  • pwnat – Punches holes in firewalls and NATs.
  • dsniff – Collection of tools for network auditing and pentesting.
  • tgcd – Simple Unix network utility to extend the accessibility of TCP/IP based network services beyond firewalls.
  • smbmap – Handy SMB enumeration tool.
  • scapy – Python-based interactive packet manipulation program & library.
  • Dshell – Network forensic analysis framework.
  • Debookee – Simple and powerful network traffic analyzer for macOS.
  • Dripcap – Caffeinated packet analyzer.
  • Printer Exploitation Toolkit (PRET) – Tool for printer security testing capable of IP and USB connectivity, fuzzing, and exploitation of PostScript, PJL, and PCL printer language features.
  • Praeda – Automated multi-function printer data harvester for gathering usable data during security assessments.
  • routersploit – Open source exploitation framework similar to Metasploit but dedicated to embedded devices.
  • evilgrade – Modular framework to take advantage of poor upgrade implementations by injecting fake updates.
  • XRay – Network (sub)domain discovery and reconnaissance automation tool.
  • Ettercap – Comprehensive, mature suite for machine-in-the-middle attacks.
  • BetterCAP – Modular, portable and easily extensible MITM framework.
  • CrackMapExec – A swiss army knife for pentesting networks.
  • impacket – A collection of Python classes for working with network protocols.
Wireless Network Hacking Tools
  • Aircrack-ng – Set of Penetration testing & Hacking Tools list for auditing wireless networks.
  • Kismet – Wireless network detector, sniffer, and IDS.
  • Reaver – Brute force attack against Wifi Protected Setup.
  • Wifite – Automated wireless attack tool.
  • Fluxion – Suite of automated social engineering-based WPA attacks.
Transport Layer Security Tools
  • SSLyze – Fast and comprehensive TLS/SSL configuration analyzer to help identify security misconfigurations.
  • tls_prober – Fingerprint a server’s SSL/TLS implementation.
  • testssl.sh – Command-line tool which checks a server’s service on any port for the support of TLS/SSL ciphers, protocols as well as some cryptographic flaws.
Web Exploitation
  • OWASP Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP) – Feature-rich, scriptable HTTP intercepting proxy and fuzzer for penetration testing web applications.
  • Fiddler – Free cross-platform web debugging proxy with user-friendly companion tools.
  • Burp Suite – One of the Hacking Tools ntegrated platform for performing security testing of web applications.
  • autochrome – Easy to install a test browser with all the appropriate settings needed for web application testing with native Burp support, from NCCGroup.
  • Browser Exploitation Framework (BeEF) – Command and control server for delivering exploits to commandeered Web browsers.
  • Offensive Web Testing Framework (OWTF) – Python-based framework for pentesting Web applications based on the OWASP Testing Guide.
  • WordPress Exploit Framework – Ruby framework for developing and using modules which aid in the penetration testing of WordPress powered websites and systems.
  • WPSploit – Exploit WordPress-powered websites with Metasploit.
  • SQLmap – Automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool.
  • tplmap – Automatic server-side template injection and Web server takeover Hacking Tools.
  • weevely3 – Weaponized web shell.
  • Wappalyzer – Wappalyzer uncovers the technologies used on websites.
  • WhatWeb – Website fingerprinter.
  • BlindElephant – Web application fingerprinter.
  • wafw00f – Identifies and fingerprints Web Application Firewall (WAF) products.
  • fimap – Find, prepare, audit, exploit and even google automatically for LFI/RFI bugs.
  • Kadabra – Automatic LFI exploiter and scanner.
  • Kadimus – LFI scan and exploit tool.
  • liffy – LFI exploitation tool.
  • Commix – Automated all-in-one operating system command injection and exploitation tool.
  • DVCS Ripper – Rip web-accessible (distributed) version control systems: SVN/GIT/HG/BZR.
  • GitTools – One of the Hacking Tools that Automatically find and download Web-accessible .git repositories.
  • sslstrip –One of the Hacking Tools Demonstration of the HTTPS stripping attacks.
  • sslstrip2 – SSLStrip version to defeat HSTS.
  • NoSQLmap – Automatic NoSQL injection and database takeover tool.
  • VHostScan – A virtual host scanner that performs reverse lookups, can be used with pivot tools, detect catch-all scenarios, aliases, and dynamic default pages.
  • FuzzDB – Dictionary of attack patterns and primitives for black-box application fault injection and resource discovery.
  • EyeWitness – Tool to take screenshots of websites, provide some server header info, and identify default credentials if possible.
  • webscreenshot – A simple script to take screenshots of the list of websites.
Hex Editors
  • HexEdit.js – Browser-based hex editing.
  • Hexinator – World’s finest (proprietary, commercial) Hex Editor.
  • Frhed – Binary file editor for Windows.
  • 0xED – Native macOS hex editor that supports plug-ins to display custom data types.
File Format Analysis Tools
  • Kaitai Struct – File formats and network protocols dissection language and web IDE, generating parsers in C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby.
  • Veles – Binary data visualization and analysis tool.
  • Hachoir – Python library to view and edit a binary stream as the tree of fields and tools for metadata extraction.
read more https://oyeitshacker.blogspot.com/2020/01/penetration-testing-hacking-tools.html
submitted by icssindia to HowToHack [link] [comments]

Ethereum on ARM. Nethermind and Hyperledger Besu Eth1.0 clients included. Prysm Eth2.0 huge improvements. Raspberry Pi 4 progress. Software updates.

Ethereum on ARM is a project that provides custom Linux images for Raspberry Pi 4 (Ethereum on ARM32 repo [1]), NanoPC-T4 [2] and RockPro64 [3] boards (Ethereum on ARM64 repo [4]) that run Geth, Parity, Nethermind [5] or Besu [6] Ethereum clients as a boot service and automatically turns these ARM devices into a full Ethereum node. The images include other components of the Ethereum ecosystem such as Status.im, Raiden, IPFS, Swarm and Vipnode as well as initial support for Eth2.0 clients.
Images take care of all the necessary steps, from setting up the environment and formatting the SSD disk to installing and running the Ethereum software as well as synchronizing the blockchain.
All you need to do is flash the MicroSD card, plug in an ethernet cable, connect the SSD disk and turn on the device.
It was about time!. We’ve been hard at work, doing lots of tests, fixing bugs and updating and including new software. This is what we’ve been up to.
Images update
Note: If you are already running an Ethereum on ARM node (Raspberry Pi 4, NanoPC-T4 or RockPro64) you can update the Ethereum software by running the following command:
sudo update-ethereum
For installing the new eth1 clients:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install nethermind hyperledger-besu
DOWNLOAD LINKS
For further info regarding installation and usage please visit Ethereum on ARM32 Github repo [1] (Raspberry Pi 4) and Ethereum on ARM64 Github [4] (NanoPC-T4 and RockPro64)
RASPBERRY PI 4 IMAGE
https://ethraspbian.com/downloads/image_2020-03-23-EthRaspbian2.0-lite.zip
SHA256 605f1a4f4a9da7d54fc0256c3a4e3dfed1780b74973735fca5240812f1ede3ea
NANOPC-T4 IMAGE
https://ethraspbian.com/downloads/Armbian_20.05.0-trunk_Nanopct4_bionic_legacy_4.4.213.img.zip
SHA256 e67fdc743b33a4b397a55d721fcd35fc3541a8f26bd006d2461c035c2e46fe97
ROCKPRO64 IMAGE
https://ethraspbian.com/downloads/Armbian_20.05.0-trunk_Rockpro64_bionic_legacy_4.4.213.img.zip
SHA256 9d75dc71aba8cd0b8c6b4f02408f416a77e8e6459aedc70f617a83a5070f17b5
ETHEREUM SOFTWARE INSTALLED
Software updates
New software included
Ethereum 1.0
NETHERMIND
The Nethermind client is finally included and these is great news for the eth1 client ecosystem. On one hand it took a while, mainly for two reasons. .NET support for ARM [7] is quite recent and, on the other hand, getting a self contained binary for ARM is not an easy task (although Microsoft has a nice cross-compilation tool set). Besides, Nethermind has some native dependencies and it took some time to figure out how .NET handles this and how to put all config and system files together (by the way, thank you very much to the Nethermind team for their great support,).
Nethermind is a great option for running an ETH1 node. .NET performs quite well and synchronization time is fantastic.
Keep in mind that Nethermind doesn’t download receipts and bodies by default, this is why the sync time is so fast. You can change this behaviour by editing mainnet.cfg file (see below).
As always, you need to enable the service and disable the other ETH1 clients. For instance, if you are running Geth:
sudo systemctl stop geth && sudo systemctl disable geth 
sudo systemctl enable nethermind && sudo systemctl start nethermind
You can tweak the client parameters here (currently only mainnet.cfg is supported)
/etc/nethermind/configs/mainnet.cfg
Systemd parameters:
/etc/ethereum/nethermind.conf
As always, output is redirected to syslog.
tail -f /valog/syslog
ARM32 version has some problems, though. There are lots of crashes because of memory problems (as well as the other clients). This is certainly related to the ongoing “allocation memory bug” [8]. See “Raspberry Pi 4” section for further info. Feedback is appreciated.
HYPERLEDGER BESU
Besu is an enterprise-grade Java-based Ethereum client developed by Pegasys [6]. Thank you very much to Felipe Faraggi for reaching out and give us further information about it.
Besu is now included in Ethereum on ARM (64-bits only) and you can run it as a systemd service (please see Nethermind instructions above).
sudo systemctl stop geth && sudo systemctl disable geth sudo systemctl enable besu && sudo systemctl start besu 
It runs fine on NanoPC-T4 but needs more testing (particularly on the memory side). Please, give it a try and report your feedback to us. We will post more info soon, including full sync data.
Ethereum 2.0
PRYSM
Prysmatic Labs put a lot of work on their Prysm ETH2 client and the changes / improvements are impressive [9]. Additionally, they took ARM support very seriously from the beginning and are now releasing official binaries for ARM64. Thank you very much to the team!
We are getting 4-6 blocks/second (compared to 0.1/0.2 of 0.3.1 version.) This is a huge improvement and allows a NanoPC-T4 to sync the beacon chain in less than a day (23 hours).
To start syncing the beacon chain just start the service by running (again, stop and disable other clients):
sudo systemctl start prysm-beacon
If you want to be a validator, please, follow their instructions [10]. You can run the validator binary to do so.
Hardware
NANOPC-T4
Rockchip boards run on a legacy 4.4 Linux kernel and that means that it’s missing lots of improvements from the mainline branch, particularly on the storage side. We tried 5.4 and 5.5 mainline versions but it still needs some work, we will keep an eye on it [11].
On the other hand, there is an issue with log rotate (this is not a bug). We noticed that, if you don’t change the root password, cron jobs don’t work and, among other things, logrotate doesn’t truncate syslog and the it gets full. So, in order to avoid this, you need to login twice to change both passwords. First, as ethereum user (default password: ethereum) and second as root user (default password: 1234).
RASPBERRY PI 4
We’ve been experiencing memory limitations on the Raspberry Pi 4 for quite a while now, mainly caused by the 32-bit OS [8]. While the Raspbian kernel is already using a 64bit kernel, the userland is still on 32bit so, in order to mitigate these problems as much as possible, we’ve ported the Armbian virtual RAM system to the Rpi4 [12] that leverages the ZRAM kernel module to improve memory performance and, additionally, raised the swap file to 6GB. All in all, eventual crashes may happen so take this into account.
At the same time, we are looking for alternatives to set up a full 64bit image. Firstly, to get rid of the memory problems and, secondly to allow the Raspberry Pi 4 to run Eth2 clients (currently Prysm and Lighthouse). We are looking into these 2 options:
Official Ubuntu Server image [13]: We tried the official Ubuntu Server 18.04.4 that includes the 5.4 mainline kernel. The good news here is that we haven't been able to reproduce the allocation memory problem. The bad news is that the disk performance is painfully slow so this doesn’t seem an option right now.
Unofficial Ubuntu Server image [14]: As described on a recent post [15], this images is a pure 64-bit OS but uses some Raspbian parts, including the 64-bit kernel and firmware. We will try the new image soon and post the results here.
Gitcoin
We set up a Gitcoin Grant for the project. If you appreciate our work and want to support the project, please make a donation. Remember that in Gitcon CLR rounds even 1$ can make the difference!. Thank you in advance.
https://gitcoin.co/grants/384/ethereum-on-arm
Last but not least, we setup a twitter account (since January) where we try to send info on our progress, follow us or reach us on https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM
PS. Be careful and stay safe!
References
  1. https://github.com/diglos/pi-gen
  2. https://www.friendlyarm.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=225
  3. https://store.pine64.org/?product=rockpro64-4gb-single-board-computer
  4. https://github.com/diglos/userpatches
  5. https://nethermind.io
  6. https://www.hyperledger.org/projects/besu
  7. https://dotnet.microsoft.com/download/dotnet-core/thank-you/sdk-3.1.200-linux-arm64-binaries
  8. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/issues/20190
  9. https://twitter.com/EthereumOnARM/status/1238858421601959942
  10. https://prylabs.net/participate
  11. https://forum.armbian.com/topic/7498-nanopc-t4/page/5/
  12. https://forum.armbian.com/topic/5565-zram-vs-swap/
  13. https://ubuntu.com/download/raspberry-pi
  14. https://jamesachambers.com/raspberry-pi-4-ubuntu-server-desktop-18-04-3-image-unofficial/
  15. https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/epxy8l/ethereum_on_arm_ethereum_1020_ecosystem
submitted by diglos76 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Полезно. ПО Fawkes - клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц. Защитите ваши фото ! Скачать ПО Fawkes. Как использовать ПО Fawkes установка. Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy. Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions

Как защититься от системы распознавания лиц при помощи ПО Fawkes
Как защититься от массовой слежки и идентификации людей по лицу

Полезно. ПО Fawkes - клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц. Защитите ваши фото !
Скачать ПО Fawkes. Как использовать ПО Fawkes , установка.
Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy. Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions

Алгоритм Fawkes эффективно подрывает базу обучения «вражеской» нейросети. Перед публикацией каждой фотографии в ней делаются незаметные попиксельные изменения, после чего она становится не то что непригодной для использования при обучении, а буквально портит систему распознавания лиц.

Обработайте ваши фотографии с помощью Fawkes -> Загружайте ваши фото в социальные сети

сайт: http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

Fawkes - Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy
For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

Как использовать ПО Fawkes и установка - Fawkes Usage - Setup Instructions
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/blob/mastefawkes/README.md
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/tree/maste

Инструкции по установке Fawkes Setup Instructions
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/blob/mastefawkes/README.md
Publication & Presentation - PDF
Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models.
Shawn Shan, Emily Wenger, Jiayun Zhang, Huiying Li, Haitao Zheng, and Ben Y. Zhao.
In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium 2020. ( Download PDF here )
https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/%7Eravenben/publications/abstracts/fawkes-usenix20.html
https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/%7Eravenben/publications/pdf/fawkes-usenix20.pdf


Frequently Asked Questions http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

---------------------------------

Скачать ПО Fawkes:

Downloads and Source Code - Version 0.3 (July 2020)
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

Download the Fawkes Software:

Fawkes.dmg for Mac (v0.3)
DMG file with installer app
Compatibility: MacOS 10.13, 10.14, 10.15
https://mirror.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/files/0.3/Fawkes-0.3.dmg

Fawkes.exe for Windows (v0.3)
EXE file
Compatibility: Windows 10
https://mirror.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/files/0.3/Fawkes-0.3.exe

Бинарник для Mac
Fawkes Executable Binary
https://mirror.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/files/0.3/fawkes_binary_mac-v0.3.zip

Бинарник для Windows
Fawkes Executable Binary
https://mirror.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/files/0.3/fawkes_binary_windows-v0.3.zip

Бинарник для Linux
Fawkes Executable Binary
https://mirror.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/files/0.3/fawkes_binary_linux-v0.3.zip

Инструкции по установке Setup Instructions
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/blob/mastefawkes/README.md

Исходный код Fawkes на GitHub
Fawkes Source Code on Github, for development
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Клоакинг фотографий для защиты от систем распознавания лиц

https://habr.com/ru/company/itsumma/news/t/512122/
23 июля 2020
Информационная безопасность,
Open source,
Обработка изображений,
Киберпанк
Современные системы распознавания лиц представляют угрозу личной приватности. Уже сейчас такие системы ежедневно сканируют миллионы лиц в Китае, Великобритании и России без их согласия. Поставлена задача, чтобы в следующем году 100% пассажиров в топ-20 аэропортов США незаметно подвергали этой процедуре.
https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-nation-foreign-terrorist-entry-united-states-2/


Исследователи из Чикагского университета придумали любопытный алгоритм клоакинга, который позволяет защититься от распознавания лиц.
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

Дело в том, что системы распознавания лиц берут фотографии для обучения своей системы из ваших открытых данных — в основном, из профилей в социальных сетях и других открытых источников.

Например, крупнейшая система распознавания лиц Clearview.ai для обучения использовала более трёх миллиардов фотографий из интернета и социальных сетей. Clearview.ai демонстрирует, насколько легко построить такую систему распознавания на снимках из Facebook и «Вконтакте».
https://clearview.ai/

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/18/technology/clearview-privacy-facial-recognition.html

Так вот, новый алгоритм Fawkes эффективно подрывает базу обучения «вражеской» нейросети. Перед публикацией каждой фотографии в ней делаются незаметные попиксельные изменения, после чего она становится не то что непригодной для использования при обучении, а буквально портит систему распознавания лиц.


Схема работы Fawkes https://hsto.org/webt/vu/r2/ao/vur2aoiyij6hcfibjxpfo8-q9b8.jpeg

Программа Fawkes работает локально на вашем компьютере и выполняет клоакинг фотографий. После обработки вы можете использовать фотографии как угодно — публиковать в социальных сетях, передавать друзьям или распечатывать на бумаге. В любом случае, для распознавания лиц они уже бесполезны, как показала проверка в ходе научного исследования чикагской группы.


Интуитивно понятное пояснение в 2D-пространстве из четырёх признаков A, B, U, T, почему модель, обученная на искажённых фотографиях, не распознаёт лица на оригиналах. Слева — границы принятия решений при обучении на оригиналах, справа — границы принятия решений при обучении после клоакинга
https://hsto.org/webt/gc/bq/f1/gcbqf1bgswyycpjzszuirvgjv6w.png

Тестирование показало, что эффект клоакинга трудно распознать при обучении нейросети и он не вызывает ошибок при обучении. Другими словами, операторы системы распознавания лиц не заподозрят ничего неладного. Но просто если кто-то попытается выполнить распознавание на вашем оригинальном изображении (например, с камер наблюдения), поиск по базе не найдёт совпадений.

Fawkes протестирован и показал эффективность 100% против самых известных моделей распознавания Microsoft Azure Face API, Amazon Rekognition и Face++.

Алгоритмы сжатия изображений тоже не портят защиту клоакинга. Исследователи проверяли материал на прогрессивном JPEG, который используется в Facebook и Twitter для пережатия картинок, на уровнях качества от 5 до 95. В общем, сжатие немного ослабляет защиту клоакинга, но при этом ещё более значительно снижается качество распознавания лиц. То есть нашей задачи помех в классификации это не мешает.

Как ни странно, заблюривание фотографий и применение разных графических фильтров тоже не снимает защиту, поскольку по своей сути клоакинг происходит не на уровне пикселей, а на уровне пространства признаков, то есть пиксельные измененимя на самом деле имеют глубокую природу и не стираются в растровом редакторе.

Техническая статья с описанием алгоритма (pdf) будет представлена на ближайшем симпозиуме USENIX по безопасности 12? 14 августа 2020 года.
http://people.cs.uchicago.edu/~ravenben/publications/pdf/fawkes-usenix20.pdf

Кстати, название программы позаимствовано от маски Гая Фокса из фильма «V — значит вендетта».

Скачать программу Fawkes: http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/
Open Source
Обработка изображений
Информационная безопасность
Киберпанк
Fawkes
распознавание лиц
клоакинг
V — значит вендетта
Информационная безопасность
Обработка изображений
Киберпанк

--------------------------------------------------------
How to Setup
Fawkes Binary
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/blob/mastefawkes/README.md

This application is built for individuals to cloak their images before uploading to the Internet. For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage.

If you are a developer or researcher planning to customize and modify on our existing code. Please refer to fawkes.

How to Setup

MAC:

Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal and change directory to fawkes (the unzipped folder).
(If your MacOS is Catalina) Run sudo spctl --master-disable to enable running apps from unidentified developer. We are working on a solution to bypass this step.
Run ./protection-v0.3 -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.

PC:

Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal(powershell or cmd) and change directory to protection (the unzipped folder).
Run protection-v0.3.exe -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.

Linux:

Download the binary following this link and unzip the download file.
Create a directory and move all the images you wish to protect into that directory. Note the path to that directory (e.g. ~/Desktop/images).
Open terminal and change directory to protection (the unzipped folder).
Run ./protection-v0.3 -d IMAGE_DIR_PATH to generate cloak for images in IMAGE_DIR_PATH.
When the cloaked image is generated, it will output a *_min_cloaked.png image in IMAGE_DIR_PATH. The generation takes ~40 seconds per image depending on the hardware.

More details on the optional parameters check out the github repo
https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/tree/maste
------------------------

Usage
Fawkes https://github.com/Shawn-Shan/fawkes/tree/maste

Fawkes is a privacy protection system developed by researchers at SANDLab, University of Chicago. For more information about the project, please refer to our project webpage. Contact us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).

We published an academic paper to summarize our work "Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models" at USENIX Security 2020.

NEW! If you would like to use Fawkes to protect your identity, please check out our software and binary implementation on the website.
Copyright
This code is intended only for personal privacy protection or academic research.
We are currently exploring the filing of a provisional patent on the Fawkes algorithm.


Usage

$ fawkes

Options:

-m, --mode : the tradeoff between privacy and perturbation size. Select from min, low, mid, high. The higher the mode is, the more perturbation will add to the image and provide stronger protection.
-d, --directory : the directory with images to run protection.
-g, --gpu : the GPU id when using GPU for optimization.
--batch-size : number of images to run optimization together. Change to >1 only if you have extremely powerful compute power.
--format : format of the output image (png or jpg).

when --mode is custom:

--th : perturbation threshold
--max-step : number of optimization steps to run
--lr : learning rate for the optimization
--feature-extractor : name of the feature extractor to use
--separate_target : whether select separate targets for each faces in the diectory.

Example

fawkes -d ./imgs --mode min
Tips

The perturbation generation takes ~60 seconds per image on a CPU machine, and it would be much faster on a GPU machine. Use batch-size=1 on CPU and batch-size>1 on GPUs.
Turn on separate target if the images in the directory belong to different people, otherwise, turn it off.

How do I know my images are secure?

We are actively working on this. Python scripts that can test the protection effectiveness will be ready shortly.
Quick Installation

Install from PyPI:

pip install fawkes

If you don't have root privilege, please try to install on user namespace: pip install --user fawkes.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Image "Cloaking" for Personal Privacy http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/

Original Cloaked
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/images/shawn.jpg
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/images/shawncloaked.jpg

Original Cloaked
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/images/emily.jpg
http://sandlab.cs.uchicago.edu/fawkes/images/emilycloaked.jpg

2020 is a watershed year for machine learning. It has seen the true arrival of commodized machine learning, where deep learning models and algorithms are readily available to Internet users. GPUs are cheaper and more readily available than ever, and new training methods like transfer learning have made it possible to train powerful deep learning models using smaller sets of data.

But accessible machine learning also has its downsides. A recent New York Times article by Kashmir Hill profiled clearview.ai, an unregulated facial recognition service that has downloaded over 3 billion photos of people from the Internet and social media and used them to build facial recognition models for millions of citizens without their knowledge or permission. Clearview.ai demonstrates just how easy it is to build invasive tools for monitoring and tracking using deep learning.

So how do we protect ourselves against unauthorized third parties building facial recognition models that recognize us wherever we may go? Regulations can and will help restrict the use of machine learning by public companies but will have negligible impact on private organizations, individuals, or even other nation states with similar goals.

The SAND Lab at University of Chicago has developed Fawkes1, an algorithm and software tool (running locally on your computer) that gives individuals the ability to limit how their own images can be used to track them. At a high level, Fawkes takes your personal images and makes tiny, pixel-level changes that are invisible to the human eye, in a process we call image cloaking. You can then use these "cloaked" photos as you normally would, sharing them on social media, sending them to friends, printing them or displaying them on digital devices, the same way you would any other photo. The difference, however, is that if and when someone tries to use these photos to build a facial recognition model, "cloaked" images will teach the model an highly distorted version of what makes you look like you. The cloak effect is not easily detectable by humans or machines and will not cause errors in model training. However, when someone tries to identify you by presenting an unaltered, "uncloaked" image of you (e.g. a photo taken in public) to the model, the model will fail to recognize you.

Fawkes has been tested extensively and proven effective in a variety of environments and is 100% effective against state-of-the-art facial recognition models (Microsoft Azure Face API, Amazon Rekognition, and Face++). We are in the process of adding more material here to explain how and why Fawkes works. For now, please see the link below to our technical paper, which will be presented at the upcoming USENIX Security Symposium, to be held on August 12 to 14.

The Fawkes project is led by two PhD students at SAND Lab, Emily Wenger and Shawn Shan, with important contributions from Jiayun Zhang (SAND Lab visitor and current PhD student at UC San Diego) and Huiying Li, also a SAND Lab PhD student. The faculty advisors are SAND Lab co-directors and Neubauer Professors Ben Zhao and Heather Zheng.

1The Guy Fawkes mask, a la V for Vendetta

In addition to the photos of the team cloaked above, here are a couple more examples of cloaked images and their originals. Can you tell which is the original? (Cloaked image of the Queen courtesy of TheVerge).
Publication & Presentation

Fawkes: Protecting Personal Privacy against Unauthorized Deep Learning Models.
Shawn Shan, Emily Wenger, Jiayun Zhang, Huiying Li, Haitao Zheng, and Ben Y. Zhao.
In Proceedings of USENIX Security Symposium 2020. ( Download PDF here )
https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/%7Eravenben/publications/abstracts/fawkes-usenix20.html
https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/%7Eravenben/publications/pdf/fawkes-usenix20.pdf

-------------------------

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Что делать, как сменить власть в России на народную? Надо выходить на улицу на массовые многотысячные митинги - это единственное действенное решение.

Изменить ситуацию в России и сменить преступную власть мировых хозяев денег, путина и его банды из Совета безопасности, ФСБ и олигархов могут только протесты на улице:
постоянные массовые многотысячные протесты народа во многих городах и населенных пунктах России, протесты каждый день, протесты без уведомлений власти !

Организуйте митинги, шествия, марши по улицам, протест в виде уличной вечеринки.
Организуйте протесты каждый день в вашем районе! Мирный протест.
ПРОТЕСТЫ на УЛИЦЕ и МАССОВОСТЬ - это ГЛАВНОЕ для эффективного протеста и смены власти!
Руководство по сопротивлению. Советы по протестам. Как организовать сопротивление и мирные протесты. Советы как бороться. Как защищаться. Поведение на митинге. Как вести себя на митинге. Что делать на акции протеста, на митинге.

читайте "Руководство по сопротивлению. Советы по протестам - Часть №1":
https://www.reddit.com/True_Russia/comments/cjeply/

читайте "Руководство по сопротивлению. Советы по протестам. Часть №2":
https://www.reddit.com/True_Russia/comments/fk5d2p/

читайте "Руководство по сопротивлению. Советы по протестам. Часть №3":
https://www.reddit.com/True_Russia/comments/hs1dhi/

Руководства и советы по сопротивлению, протестам, митингам - читать тут:
https://www.reddit.com/True_Russia/collection/932a8f94-b44a-4737-ac25-fcb1428831a2
и
https://www.reddit.com/True_Russia/collection/78d163e1-cf30-4dbb-a153-053f71bede10/

Сохраните себе текст статьи - пригодится!
Распространяйте информацию. Поделитесь ссылкой. Поделитесь этой информацией с другими людьми. И просите друзей распространять информацию.

True Russia - Истинная Россия. Сопротивление. Мирный протест. Протесты на улице. Протестные Марши Шествие Митинги.
Борьба за народ России, за справедливость.
Resistance. Peaceful protest. Street protest. Protest Marches. Meeting Demonstrations

Фашизм в России Fascism in Russia. Social Justice Социальная Справедливость. Revolution in Russia Революция в России
Global News. IT Cybersecurity Privacy cybercrime Security and Surveillance. Top and breaking news, pictures and videos. International Journal business politics science economics видео video
Новости РФ и мира. Политика Наука Экономика. IT Информационная безопасность Защита данных. Руководства Советы Анонимность Защита от слежки. Обход блокировок сайтов и цензуры в России. Как защищаться от слежки. интернет Internet СОРМ Cybersecurity cybercrime privacy safety security anonymity and surveillance Тотальный контроль Total Control
сообщество сабреддит реддит на русском языке in Russian русский язык Russian language по-русски student студент студентка школа школьник школьница мем мэм мемы финансы силовики news resist protest социализм социалист солидарность сопротивление протест свобода единство борьба socialism socialist solidarity resistance protest freedom unity fighting видео video Кризис в России Мировой Кризис
***
submitted by DarkRedFist to True_Russia [link] [comments]

| Getting started with BSPWM for beginners! [Polybar][Powerline][Picom][Pywal]

A while back I made a post on getting started with BSPWM (Binary Space Partition Window Manager) on this subreddit; I plan on deleting that and using this guide as the go-to for it. I was really all over the place, and at the time there wasn't really a lot of information on the tiling window manager so there were a lot of mistakes on it and things I could have done better. Now that I've grown more experienced throughout the years with Linux in general, I feel like I've perfected the art of ricing with BSPWM and Polybar together. And I'm here to show you how it's done.
A couple of comments before we begin, I'm going to assume you have experience with the following:
And I'm going to tell you that although you can replace your overall desktop environment with a tiling window manager, I'm really hoping that you have an open mind for keeping desktop environment in your system because tiling window managers tend to become more of a general struggle to deal with if you lack a solid background in Bash scripting. However, lucky for you in this tutorial I will not be using any bash scripting. The main idea here is a tiling window manager (aka Tiling WM) is not a desktop environment (aka DE), please research the difference between the two.
[Part 1: Installing BSPWM and Polybar]
Technically speaking you can install any tiling window manager on any distribution. However I'm going to split the line here between Debian (mostly Ubuntu) and Arch (I'm going to ignore Solus, Gentoo, and other Linux OS with unique file systems). If you're on Ubuntu you can install BSPWM without issues by simply running:
sudo apt install bspwm
However your efforts for viability in using the Polybar status bar ends there as you will have to install the extra dependencies to get Polybar to work, and even after installing the dependencies you have to reconfigure the cmake file to recognize where to find the siji font you have to install. Luckily for you if you know bash scripting really well and know how to for example pull out the clock configuration and print it into a UI, then you can use the default status bar bspwm installs called lemonbar which you can find out more of here: https://github.com/LemonBoy/bar
But if you are like me and don't want to learn Bash scripting, and you want to hop right into Polybar without issues, then Arch Linux is the operating system for you. I'm going to assume you know how to install it, if you don't it's alright I don't either, which is why I use anarchy to install it; it's an iso that has a cli interface to help you install Arch into your system https://www.anarchylinux.org/
In this tutorial I will be using Arch Linux as my OS and Gnome as my desktop environment of choice. It's one of the best desktop environments out there, and easy to apply themes to. Configure your desktop of choice how you like it, rice it up even if you wish to do so.
In Arch Linux packages aren't located in one place like they are in Ubuntu, instead you have a core set of packages the Arch Linux organization caters, and the default manager for packages is called pacman ; then you have a collection of extra packages maintained by users who lovingly love Arch's simplicity called the Arch User Repository (AUR), and to get a package from the AUR you need to use a community package manager. I do not recommend using any AUR package manager (aka helper) mentioned on the web instead use ones from this list that comes from the official Arch Linux organization: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/AUR_helpers
I'm going to be using pikaur for this tutorial, to get it simply follow the instructions here: https://github.com/actionless/pikaur#installation and you'll be set.
A note on using your community package helper and pacman: you want to have the mindset that if something can be gotten from pacman, that you'll get it from pacman because pacman uses sudo priveleges; meaning that the maintainers of the software are telling you that you can trust a certain package and it's because it will be installed within your root folders. Community packages can contain malware; and by some god given miracle some bastard has written malware, it will have a tough time escalating privileges because community packages are installed on your home directory. Believe me I've genuinely tried this and it's hard to do; it ain't easy to do for hackers.
Now lets assume I'm starting from my gnome desktop, to install BSPWM on Arch, and while were at it lets install the other packages (note that one is a font) were going to focus on, simply run:
sudo pacman -S bspwm sxhkd picom ttf-font-awesome rxvt-unicode dmenu powerline python-pip feh neofetch zsh-theme-powerlevel9k lxappearance zsh rofi scrot
and while were at it lets install Polybar and the extra community packages (note that one is a font):
pikaur -S polybar nerd-fonts-complete cava bash-pipes cmatrix
Follow the prompts for each and install them. Note nerd fonts takes an incredibly long time to install, this is normal, you'll see pikaur stall at "compressing package" don't freak out!
Were also going to use pywal from dylanarlaps (https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal), please donate to him, he's done incredible work in creating this amazing tool were going to use:
sudo pip3 install pywal
All of these software have githubs to them, feel free to google search for them and skim their wikis!
I also use zsh by default even though I'm not a mac user, but only real hacktivists use Oh My ZSH!
https://ohmyz.sh/
run the little curl command they got there, and you'll be part of the cool kids club!
At this point you might be tempted to switch to BSPWM and get started, but you'll meet with the impasse of being unable to do anything, even log out of the session. To prevent this, you need to understand how BSPWM works. To start off, you first need to navigate to a hidden folder called .config in your home directory. In here you need to create two folders, one named bspwmand the other sxhkd, and within them you're going to create two empty files called bspwmrcin the bspwm folder and sxhkdrc in the sxhkd folder. The rc files (running configuration) are responsible for handling the behavior of the window manager (bspwmrc does this) and the keystrokes (sxhkdrc does this). I'm going to give you the default content Baskerville created in his github (https://github.com/baskerville/bspwm) for BSPWM below, later we are going to modify this for some extra functionality, so for now just copy and paste these into the files you created:
bspwmrc: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/baskerville/bspwm/masteexamples/bspwmrc
sxhkdrc:https://raw.githubusercontent.com/baskerville/bspwm/masteexamples/sxhkdrc
And the last thing you want to do is make bspwmrc an executable, simply navigate to the file, right click it on your file manager, select properties>permissions, and tick the box to allow the file to be run as an executable. For sxhkdrc I won't be using urxvt, although I will give you the Xresources I created for it a long time ago, instead I'm going to use the gnome terminal to keep things easier. If you want to use the gnome terminal, simply replace urxvt with gnome-terminal in the sxhkdrc file.
Once you're done with this, log out and change your environment to BSPWM, to open a terminal press super+enter where super is your windows or mac key on your keyboard to bring up a terminal. To change your workspace press Super+2, and to open firefox, press super+space to use dmenu to search for it.
The way BSPWM works is through a socket-client model in which the handler (bspc) connects to a socket created by bspwm. You don't need to know too much about this in relation to this guide, but the config file I provide will get you started on how to setup commands for bspc. For now I want you to focus on that sxhkdrc is where you set your keybinds, sxhkd is the program that handles those keybinds, and bspc tells bspwm how to handle its backend. Consult the manual for BSPWM using man bspwm for more info.
[Part 2: Ricing and Modding BSPWM]
To start off I want you to select a background of your choice, and I want you to choose a background that doesn't just have two or three colors, but a mesh of beautiful colors, the more colors used the better. This background will model all of the colors used in your window borders and terminal through the use of a program called pywal: https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal
Now before going any further, I highly recommend that if you ever get stuck on any of this, that you go into the github pages of these packages and consult their READMEs and wikis, because I wont be there to hold your hand unless I feel like it. However to satisfy your inner demon I'll be sure to supply you with as much information as I possibly can and split this by sections to build the killer desktop you crave. As a reference you can always refer to my dotfiles here: https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/src/maste ; I'll probably have made some changes here and there, but nothing major since the inception of this guide.
What I will NOT be dealing with is URxvt. Although the terminal seems to be the weapon of choice for BSPWM users I like my comfy Gnome Terminal, and to be fair, you can always pick the one you like; as far as this goes, any terminal will work with pywal because what it's actually dependent on is the zsh running config or .zshrc file hiding in your home directory. Oh and one last thing I had you install a program called dmenu, which you can use to bring up programs. Here are some basic keybinds to help you run stuff you need:
So assuming you've managed to install Oh My Zsh, and installed pywal like I told you to, and you have chosen your wallpaper you simply need to navigate to your bashrc file and add my stuff to it. Don't panic, really try to read my comments follows with (#) :
#set your wallpaper upon logging in &
feh --bg-fill $HOME/Path/to/youpicture &
#This invokes pywal with your image simply replace the path
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture &
#source the colors located within a shell script from your cache (you don't need to touch this).
. "${HOME}/.cache/wal/colors.sh"
#Set the border colors for your windows for focused, active and inactive ones.
bspc config normal_border_color "$color1"
bspc config active_border_color "$color2"
bspc config focused_border_color "$color15"
#Use the line below if you are on bspwm >= 0.9.4
bspc config presel_feedback_color "$color1"
#Use the line below if you are on bspwm < 0.9.4
#bspc config presel_border_color "$color1"
#place the focus on where the mouse is; if you like clicking windows to focus, comment this line
bspc config focus_follows_pointer true
After placing this in your bspwmrc file log out and log back in and you'll see the borders have adapted the color of the wallpaper behind it when you open your terminal. Neat right? But you might be asking, why doesn't the terminal take any colors? And the answer is in the shell it's using; remember that hidden file .zshrc in your home directory that you can't see if you don't have a show hidden files checkbox clicked on your file manager? open it, and at the very bottom of it, add this line:
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture
Now zsh is set to run pywal every time you open it. So now upon re-opening your terminal, you should see that the terminal has now taken the colors of your wallpaper. Feel free to adjust and modify these settings as you see fit. Change the colors, do as you please, as an added bonus to my setup I adjusted the gaps between my windows to be 25 pixels apart, like so:
#Define window settings
bspc config border_width 2
bspc config window_gap 25
bspc config split_ratio 0.52
bspc config borderless_monocle true
bspc config gapless_monocle true
If and only if you have more than one monitor like I do, simply adjust your bspc monitor line to look like so:
#Define Workspace Rules
bspc monitor HDMI-1 -d Terminal Sublime Firefox
bspc monitor DVI-D-1 -d ws4 ws5
#These options for follow and focus put you on the workspace these programs start on; the -a = activate
bspc rule -a Gnome-terminal desktop='^1' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a Sublime_text desktop='^2' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a firefox desktop='^3' follow=on focus=on
bspc rule -a ws4 desktop='^4' follow=on
bspc rule -a ws5 desktop='^5' follow=on
And replace the desktops with the appropriate names, which you can find by simply running xrandrin your terminal. Again it doesn't have to be copy and paste what I have you can always replace the programs and workspace configuration with your own to your liking.
[Part 3: Pimping Polybar]
At this point you must feel all proud of your new little setup, but you can't be satisfied until you've got some method of looking at what the time is, or what workspace your on, or even better, a way to turn of your computer.
That's where Polybar comes in, and now all you have to do is go to the github page for Polybar, and look through the wiki to find what you need. I've taken the liberty of copy and pasting every module I wanted; and put it all into one nice neat config file you can refer to. I don't feel like explaining how Polybar works as the wiki is more than acceptable.
https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/raw/ee4519ce7b62f56af42c127024a4dadece3d0e51/bspwm-config/polybaconfig
Here's my file in raw format, you can copy and paste it, but there are certain parts on it you need to modify to make it work on your pc. So the first parts are within the first set of parameters under "Bar Module"; upon skimming carefully you'll notice that I've set up two bars named future1 and future2, and within them I've placed the respective monitors I want them on.
You'll also notice I've set some lines to set the fonts for them; now I use a font called font awesome to grab icons for the bar from:
https://fontawesome.com/
within these lines:
;Define fonts to be used, check fc-list to see all the ones you have
font-0 = "Unifont:size=12:weight=bold;"
font-1 = "Font Awesome 5 Free,Font Awesome 5 Free Solid: style=Solid: size=12;"
font-2 = "Font Awesome 5 Free,Font Awesome 5 Free Regular: style=Regular: size=12"
font-3 = "Font Awesome 5 Brands,Font Awesome 5 Brands Regular:style=Regular"
I mention this and even put a comment on it to remind you of where and what to edit in the event that the creators of Font Awesome come out with a Font Awesome 6 and suddenly your icons on Polybar break. I once fell victim to this when Font Awesome 4 got released and it gave me a lot of frustration, so here I am saving you a massive headache should you choose to update your machine. So when Font Awesome 6 comes out change the 5 in Font Awesome 5 to a 6 and things should be okay again.
The rest of my file is pretty much ripped off straight from the wiki, so please consult each section as needed.
Alas to finally get Polybar to work you need to add it as a startup program in your bspwmrc file; in my case the lines would be:
polybar future1 &
polybar future2 &
because I named my bars future1 and future2.
My colors parameters section is ripped straight from from the pywal wiki here:https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal/wiki/Customization . Just click on the Polybar Title and you'll see exactly what I put in there. The only thing is I added my own version of the background color because Pywal doesn't generate transparency in its code; only 6 Hex color codes, not the extra (AA) I added for transparency, I've also colored it dark purple.
[Part 3: Going blind the right way with Picom]
In the land before this guide was created, we used something called Compton to handle all of our compositor needs. If you don't know what a compositor does, it's a tool that lets you define shadows and transparency for your windows, and what I've done, which has viciously taken me 6 hours to achieve through trail and error, I am simply going to explain the config the best way I possibly can and give it to you. What I've managed to achieve is a subversive blur effect in addition to transparency, it's something you don't normally see in Unixporn configs, nor in desktop managers that use compton by default.
Here it is: https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/raw/ee4519ce7b62f56af42c127024a4dadece3d0e51/bspwm-config/picom/picom.conf
This was originally created by code_nomad and is a file ripped straight from the official Arch Linux website. Here's the original: https://git.archlinux.org/svntogit/community.git/tree/trunk/compton.conf?h=packages/compton#n80
And to this day I still don't know what everything on it, but I've made educated guesses, and will try and explain it from my perspective. Note that at the time of writing this Picom has only its terminal manual to explain things man picom, so I'm doing you a favor here. To get Picom going you need to add it as a startup program to your bspwmrc file:
#please replace accordingly
picom --config $HOME/path/to/youcreated/picom.conf/file &
The first and obvious mods I made are for the shadows, all I did is reset their offsets to 0 and set the opacity to 1 for them so you can clearly see them when you start picom. I did not touch the excluded shadows section.
The only section I truly played around with is the Opacity section. The first group of settings speak for themselves as they're pretty self explanatory (I'm ignoring the override I have no idea what that does). The opacity rules is the meat of this config file. The way it works is each window has a property to it internally that has a class name to it. Each rule on the list is defined as PERCENTOPAQUE:RULE. It's best to take an example, so let me use this one to start off with:
"99:class_g = 'firefox' && focused",
So what this rule does is set the opacity of my window with window class 'firefox' to 99 if I am focused on it. If I am not focused it will revert to the inactive opacity setting of 0.5 that I have. The class names are very specific to the program you're working with, sometimes, simply supplying the class name wont work because the specified window doesn't have a WM_OPACITY property set on it; so you're left to use just the class name on it like I did with sublime so that it matches the class to anything resembling the name of the program (that's what I was told the ? is for):
"99:class_g ?= 'sublime_text' && focused",
In order to find the proper class names you have to use a program called xprop (I'll let you figure out how to use this), the class name will be within WM_CLASS(STRING) = "some name here". As a general rule of thumb, for any program you use first try and see if using just the "=" works, and if it doesn't then just use the "?=". In the examples above if I don't want the opacity to change on focus, then just remove the && focusedlike I did with Rofi.
Blurring is a whole other concept I still don't fully understand however I played around with my settings and use a 7x7box kernel setting. If it lags for you, you can always try the 3x3box or the 5x5box kernel. You can also use the one in the original example with the crazy list of numbers, and just play around with it. I leave you to trial and error everything regarding blurring. I've chatted with some people on Unixporn about this, and I came across a neat little program called kawase, but according to Yshui, the maintainer of Picom, lack of manpower makes its integration hard, so if you're balsy enough to tackle this mountain, by all means help this person https://github.com/yshui/picom/issues/32 .
[Part 4: URxvt Lovers (if you're not using URxvt skip this)]
I don't mess around with this too much, here's my old .Xresources file, it includes some settings for Rofi, which I will cover later:
https://pastebin.com/K6JvVfVV
but it should work fine as long as you have Adobe source code pro fonts installed into your system. Here's the package index for the font in case if you don't have it: https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/adobe-source-code-pro-fonts/
Simply place that file in your home directory and you should be okay.
[Part 5: Fast Execution with Rofi]
Rofi is a neat little tool used to replace dmenu I recommend trying it out on your terminal just to get the feel for it. All I'm doing is applying the pywal instructions to play here, so here you go:
Original Instructions:
https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal/wiki/Customization#rofi
Just follow steps 1, 2, and 3 on this:
https://github.com/dylanaraps/pywal/wiki/User-Template-Files
your end file for config.rasi should look like so:
configuration {
theme: "~/.cache/wal/colors-rofi-dark.rasi";
}
Be sure to replace your keybind dmenu for sxhkdrc for rofi, your keybind should look like so:
#program launcher
super + @space
rofi -show run
[Part 6: Setting the themes and default cursor]
If you're on Unixporn you probably already know how to setup User themes from source by putting them in your home directory so I wont explain that. However I will tell you that you need to use lxappearance to set the icons and theme. It's pretty self explanatory once you actually open lxappearance and play around with it.
The cursor however isn't permanent, at least in my case it wasn't, and luckily for you I found the solution. To set the default cursor:
1 - copy cursor theme to /usshare/icons
2 - change the default Inherits value to theme name as shown in lxappearance inside this file: /usshare/icons/default/index.theme
and you should be set. [There is a bug that changes the cursor when focusing on windows that aren't related to lxde, as soon as I figure out how to fix that I'll add that onto here].
[Part 7: POWUHLEVEL9000 (powerline ricing)]
Ricing Powerline has been a massive headache for me. However everything is done within the .zshrc file. I'll just give you what I have and the beefy github wiki created for it (https://github.com/Powerlevel9k/powerlevel9k/wiki). It uses the entire nerdfonts collection https://www.nerdfonts.com/ which is why it took so long to install, so for all intents and purposes, if you can change my zshrc file to your liking then by all means do so (https://bitbucket.org/Volteos/linux-dot-files/raw/ee4519ce7b62f56af42c127024a4dadece3d0e51/bspwm-config/.zshrc):
neofetch --ascii $HOME/path/to/some/file/with/ascii/art
wal -i $HOME/Path/to/youpicture -q
POWERLEVEL9K_MODE='nerdfont-complete'
POWERLEVEL9k_OS_ICON=$'\uF303'
POWERLEVEL9K_LEFT_PROMPT_ELEMENTS=(os_icon context status dir vcs) POWERLEVEL9K_RIGHT_PROMPT_ELEMENTS=(status)
plugins=(git)
source /usshare/zsh-theme-powerlevel9k/powerlevel9k.zsh-theme
I've muted neofetch and pywal, I won't go into too much detail about neofetch only that I've muted it and used ascii art instead of an image. If you want to know more about neofetch this is your friend: https://github.com/dylanaraps/neofetch .
[Part 7: GODLEVEL10000 (Powerlevel10k) ]
I decided to add this as part of this guide, Powerlevel10k acts as a fork to Powerlevel9k that was introduced in March 2019, in which it absolutely speaks for itself. If you would love to try it out check out the github for it! https://github.com/romkatv/powerlevel10k/ I'll show you how to get started on it, I recommend starting off with migrating from Powerlevel9k. Assuming you have installed the nerd fonts and everything else, you should be good to go!
Start off by installing it from your AUR helper:
pikaur -S zsh-theme-powerlevel10k-git
Then simply run:
sudo git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/romkatv/powerlevel10k.git $ZSH_CUSTOM/themes/powerlevel10k
sed 's/powerlevel9k/powerlevel10k/g' -i ~/.zshrc
exec zsh
p10k configure
Follow the prompt and enjoy your now god level powerline config!
[The End]
This pretty much covers everything I hope to see some pretty gnarly configs down the line BSPWM is really on the rise and I think it's a much easier alternative to work with than i3, I love it so far, and hope its users come to love it as much as I do too someday!
submitted by Volteos to unixporn [link] [comments]

HOW TO: Install BLTOUCH V3.1 and Marlin 2.0 on Ender 3/Pro With ONLY a mini USB and the included USB ISP cable!

When I say included, I mean the USB ISP cable with the 10 to 6 pin adapter that is included with the Creality branded BLTOUCH kit. I also needed a mini USB to USB type A cable that was not included. If you are well versed in Arduino and flashing firmwares to 3d printers, this write up isn't for you. This is for the total noob (like me) that has never done anything like this before.

I just went through this process, and I could not find a single source that had all of the information I needed to get this done using *only* the hardware I had on hand. I didn't want to buy an Arduino Uno or a Raspberry Pi or anything else, and that seemed to make things harder, but really I just needed to learn a few things about how the Arduino IDE software works. This is being written from a 100% noob perspective, so feel free to correct any faults. Link to BLTOUCH I ordered on Amazon (US)
So, here we go.
First of all, you can follow the included creality manual that shows how to physically install the bltouch kit on the Ender 3/Pro. Ignore the software part, because we will be using a much better version of software called Marlin (version 2.). Once you have installed the bltouch and removed the unnecessary end stop switch, leave the motherboard exposed so you can access the 6 pin connector that you use to flash firmware. At this time your Ender 3 or 3 Pro should be turned off and unplugged-it does not need to be plugged in to the main power cable to flash the firmware.
Once you have that done and the motherboard is exposed, we can start with the needed software. First, download the firmware file for your specific printer (in my case it was Ender 3 pro BL touch +ISP cable instruction") from this website (creality3d.com). Once you do that, unzip the file to a convenient place. Then go in the included folder and un-rar the next folder called ISP.rar, then open the folder called ISP, then unzip the folder called progisp+1.72. zip. In this folder, there will be be another folder called progisp+1.72, but it will have some Chinese characters after the name. You need to rename this folder for progisp to work! Apparently the Chinese characters throw it off or something, and cause an error. So rename it progisp or whatever you want, as long as the Chinese characters are removed. We are not using the included firmware with this package, only the application that is inside your newly renamed filed, called progisp.exe. Remeber the location of this, because we will need it in a bit.
Next, we are going to setup our firmware. Go to this website (github) and click the "clone or download button on the right side of the page, then click "Download ZIP" in the dropdown. This is for Marlin 2.0 firmware that is preconfigured for the Ender 3 and Ender 3 Pro, so you don't have to do any editing in Arduino of this firmware. It makes the process (much) easier in my opinion. You can unzip the downloaded file and put it somewhere easy to access (I used my desktop for everything).
Now, we need to download the Arduino IDE software. Once installed, you can open the program and go through initial setup to get to the software. Close the software when you are at the home screen.
*********I am not sure if this step is completely necessary or not, but this is how I did it:
-Now we flash a bootloader. I used this bootloader file. If you haven't downloaded from github before (I hadn't), right click on the "RAW" button and click "save link as...", then save the file to your preferred location. It will save as a .hex file which we will flash to the motherboard. Now, you can connect the USB ISP cable that came with the bltouch kit to your Ender 3/Pro motherboard, and into your laptop. You will need the cable itself, as well as the 10 pin to 6 pin adapter board that came with the kit. The included instructions show you how to plug it in-in my case, the long gray cable from the USB ISP points away from the motherboard when plugged in correctly. It's easier to plug in if you unplug the screen cable first, which is the large cable right next to the 6 pin connector.
Now, with Arduino closed, we open the progisp.exe file that came with the Ender 3 firmware file we downloaded and unzipped,unrar'ed, and renamed. Progisp will open on your computer. In the upper left hand corner of the display, click the drop down under "select chip", and choose "ATmega1284P". Then click the "..." button in the lower right corner of the screen, and enter these values: Low Value: DC; High Value: D6; EXTValue: FD; and LockValue: FF, then click "write", and close the popup window so you are back at the progisp home screen. In the upper left corner of the screen there is a window that says "Program State"-In the box below that PRG ISP should be in color-this will let you know that the motherboard is connected properly-as well as the blue light on the motherboard. On the home screen select on these options: Chip Erase, Program FLASH, and Program Fuse. Now, in the upper right corner click "load flash", and select the .hex bootloader file we just downloaded from github, and then click the "Auto" button. A green progress bar will show, and you the message box will give you a successful message. For now, you can close progisp (but we will need it again in a moment (my understanding is that you should not run progisp and arduino at the same time, that's why I keep jumping around).
Next, we unplug the USBISP cable, and plug in a mini USB cable directly to the USB port on the front of the Ender's electronics case and into your computer. Then, we will navigate to the unzipped folder that contains the Marlin firmware. It should be called Ender-3-bltouch-installation-master. Open that, then open the next folder called Marlin 2.0-Ender 3 BLTOUCH, and now open the folder called "Marlin". Inside of it there is a file called "marlin.ino". Double click that file and it will automatically open Arduino IDE, and you will be at the firmware editor screen.
From here, go to Tools and Manage libraries and add the U8glib Library (Make sure the library is called U8glib-it was at the bottom of the list for me). Once installed go to Go to Sketch, Include Library, find and select your u8glib. Then go to File, Preferences, select "Show Verbose Output During": Compilation and Upload, and enter this URL in Additional Boards Manager URLs:
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Lauszus/Sanguino/mastepackage_lauszus_sanguino_index.json 
Click "OK", and click Tools, Board, Board Manager, and search for "Sanguino" and install it, then close boards manager. Now, go back to tools, and select:
Board: Sanguino
Processor: ATmega1284 or ATmega1284P (16Mhz)
Port: Select the port your USB is connected to the printer with-mine only showed one port (COM3 in my case)
Programmer: AVRISP mkII
Once you have done that, click Sketch, then verify/compile. This will take a few minutes, then when it completes go to Sketch, and click "Export compiled binary". When the software says "Done Compiling" at the bottom (the logging area), you need to find the output folder for the firmware. The log will say the following:
Compiling core...
Using precompiled core
Linking everything together...
Directory line 1
Directory line 2
Directory line 3
You need to scroll horizontally on directory line 3 and the last file will be C:/Users.......marlin.ino.hex.
Navigate to that file in file explorer, and copy and paste the .hex file into a place that is easy to find (like your desktop).
Now, we can close Arduino and unplug the mini USB cable and plug the USBISP cable back into the motherboard and computer you are using, and open progisp.exe just like we did before.
Select chip again in the top left if needed, then click the "..." button again, and make sure the same values are input (DC, D6,FD,FF), and click "Write", then close the pop up. Now, select the same options as we used previously (Chip Erase, Program FLASH, and Program Fuse), and click "load flash" in the top right corner, select the marlin.ino.hex file we placed somewhere convenient, and click "Auto". When the program is done flashing, unplug the USBISP cable from the motherboard and you can plug in your printer to the power cable and power it on.
After a few seconds you should boot into the Marlin 2.0 home screen, and you can now configure your bltouch!
If following this guide helps you out, let me know! This is exactly the process I followed and I am now (finally) running Marlin 2.0 with a working BLTouch. If this is horrible, let me know that as well and maybe I can fix it! I know it's a little lengthy, but it's really not a *hard* process per se. Anyway, hope this helps someone.
Here are some of the websites I pieced this information together from, in case you want to check them out:
https://github.com/3d-printing-canada/Ender-3-BL-Touch-Installation
https://all3dp.com/2/ender-3-with-marlin-how-to-install-marlin-firmware-on-your-ender-3/
https://www.reddit.com/ender3/comments/cfmbdy/howto_installing_a_bootloader_to_an_ender_3_pro/
https://howchoo.com/g/mge1mdfkzjv/ender-3-bootloader-firmware-update-marlin
https://www.fission3d.com/post/flash-bootloader-and-install-firmware-with-raspberry-pi
Special thanks to this sub, and to u/apristel for the final link that tied everything together. Time for a beer LOL.
submitted by theblobAZ to Ender3Pro [link] [comments]

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